Almost every child while growing up is presented with a doctor set and a lab coat. Stethoscope plugged into their ears and notepad in hand, it is at a young age that children are introduced to one of the most demanding and lucrative career choices-recommended, and often imposed, strongly by,Almost every child while growing up is presented with a doctor set and a lab coat. Stethoscope plugged into their ears and notepad in hand, it is at a young age that children are introduced to one of the most demanding and lucrative career choices-recommended, and often imposed, strongly by their parents. And, it is for these reasons, among others, that India is one of the largest producers of doctors in the world.Over the years, the medical profession has evolved to envelope within its fold several specialisations, all of which are now taught at the leading universities. Whether it’s traditional systems of medicine such as unani and ayurveda, or more recently introduced fields such as occupational therapy and everything else in between-dentistry, nursing and pharmacy, the space is as diverse as it is rewarding.However, very little is known about the content of the curriculum, the top colleges to consider, the best postgraduate courses, how to tackle funding woes and the answer to the eternal public-versus-private-institution conundrum. We shed some light on all of these.Main entranceBachelor of Medicine and SurgeryMedicine is an ever-growing field. A lifelong process in research, diagnosis and treatment makes the medical profession one of the most challenging and sought after fields of employment. Aspiring doctors commonly pursue a bachelor in medicine and surgery (MBBS). The course is a confluence of the two specialisations and spans sevenand-a-half years.This period entails four-and-a-half years of classroom study, which consists of three phases, pre-clinical, para-clinical and clinical, wherein students study, among others, subjects such as anatomy, biochemistry, forensic medicine, pharmacology, psychiatry, dermatology and surgery. The remaining two years are spent on rotating internships and a year of rural posting.advertisementCareer prospects: A graduate may undertake clinical practice. Salaries range between Rs30,000 and 5 lakh per month.Expert speak: “Aspirants must have an aptitude for the subject since there is immense competition in the field. For a person to start own practice, it takes a lot of patience and confidence.” Dr Pradeep Srivastava, Founder, The Clinique, DelhiEligibility: 10+2 education with 60 per cent and common entrance test (CET) scoresFee structure: Between Rs 1,000 and 11 lakh per annumTop 5 colleges All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Delhi www.aiims. edu Armed Forces Medical College, Pune www.afmc.nic.in Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi www.mamc.ac.in Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore www.cmch-vellore.edu JIPMER College, Pondicherry jipmer.edu.inStrength trainingBy Karishma GoenkaBachelor of PhysiotherapyLiving in a city has its perks, but the sedentary lifestyle often results in rising complaints of spinal, neck and other bodily aches. Physiotherapy is the solution to this problem. Till a couple of decades ago, physiotherapy education could only be availed of in the form of diplomas or certification courses, which the four-and-a-half-year long comprehensive bachelor in physiotherapy (BPT) degree is slowly phasing out. The course prepares students with fundamental knowledge of the human anatomy and intricacies of the bones, muscles and nerves.Career prospects: Prospects for a physiotherapist are diverse since the practice not only supplements most other medical fields, but can also stand on its own. They may work at clinics, special schools, senior citizen homes and multinational companies. Salaries range from Rs5,000 to Rs80,000 per month.Eligibility: 10+2 education with 50 per cent and common entrance test (CET) scores.Fee structure: Private colleges 1 lakh-2 lakh per year; government colleges Rs18,000 per year onwards.Expert speak: “A thorough knowledge of the different modalities of treatment and chemical reactions within the body is essential. Physiotherapists must make patients feel comfortable.” Dr Jasleen Kaur, independent Physiotherapist, DelhiTop 5 collegesKEM Hospital, Mumbai www.kemhospital.org Deendayal Upadhyaya Institute for the Physically Handicapped, Delhi www.iphnewdelhi.in Apollo College of Physiotherapy, Hyderabad www.aherf.org Kasturba Medical College, Manipal manipal.edu All India Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mumbai www.aiipmr.gov.inMending mindsBy Karishma GoenkaBachelor of Occupational TherapyOccupational therapy functions on the belief that, apart from purely physical causes, there are a combination of social, economic and biological reasons behind dysfunction of any kind. The four-and-a-half year bachelor in occupational therapy (BOT) degree prepares students for this in the form of a wide-ranging curriculum. The course structure is broad and includes subjects such as mental health, rehabilitation, neuroscience, psychology and developmental disabilities among others.Career prospects: Occupational therapists can work at hospitals, mental health centres, social services, special schools, geriatric centres and rehabilitation centres or start their own practice. Salaries range from Rs8,000 to Rs25,000 per month.Eligibility: 10+2 education with 50 per cent and common entrance test (CET) scores.advertisementFee structure: Ranges from Rs 18,000 to 2 lakh per year.Expert speak: “An individual who wants to join this field must be able to detach himself from his work and not internalise the problems of their clients.” Dr Rajesh Kumar Director, Society for Promotion of Youth and Masses, Delhi.Top 5 colleges Ahmedabad Institute of Medical Science, Ahmedabad www.aimsahmedabad.orgChristian Medical College, Vellore www.cmch-vellore.eduSchool of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal manipal.eduSeth G S Medical College, Mumbai www.kem.eduJaipur Occupational Therapy College, Jaipur www.jotc.ac.inTeething problemsBachelor of Dental SurgeryBy Arushi ThapaFrom braces and fillings for chocolate-chomping children to more invasive procedures for adults, dentists have become a common feature in urban living. The dental education system has undergone major changes over the past three decades. The focus today is on oral pathology, oral medicine and maxillofacial surgery in the curriculum of stomatology dental schools. The bachelor of dental surgery (BDS) course is spread over five years, of which four years entail classroom study and one year of compulsory internships.Career prospects: BDS graduates can work as dental surgeons, assistants, consultants, lab technicians, ceramists or professionals in the field of oral pathology in both public and private sectors. On being awarded the degree, graduates may also work as lecturers. An experienced dentist usually earns between Rs40,000 and 1.5 lakh per month.Eligibility: 10+2 education with 50 per cent and common entrance test (CET) scores.Fee structure: Ranges from Rs11,600 to 5 lakh per year.Expert speak: “Dentistry is an amalgamation of astute diagnostics, fine dexterity, understanding of physics, chemistry and other basic sciences with a sense of creative and basic aesthetics with an analytical mind and the ability to handle people.” Dr Renu Bhargava Founder, Rahat Dental Clinic, Delhi.Top 5 collegesMaulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi www.mamc.ac.inSri Rajiv Gandhi College of Dental Sciences, Bangalore www.srgcds.ac.inKing George Medical College, Lucknow www.kgmu.orgSRM Dental College, Chennai srmdentalcollege.ac.inManipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal manipal.eduHerbal healingBachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and SurgeryBy Arushi ThapaAyurveda is a branch of medicine which originated and has been practised in India for over 5,000 years. Bachelor of ayurvedic medicine and surgery (BAMS) is an integrated course, which includes the teachings of ayurvedic as well as modern machines. Graduates are not permitted to practise allopathy and may deal exclusively in the science of ayurveda. The course is for five years, with four years of classroom study and a year of internships.Career prospects: A bachelor’s degree in ayurveda enables students to register in ayurveda boards controlled by both central and state governments. Graduates may also work in companies such as Dabur and Lupin, government hospitals, pharmaceutical labs or colleges as teaching faculty or researchers. Salaries range from Rs15,000 to Rs25,000.Eligibility: 10+2 or equivalent examination, preferably with knowledge of Sanskrit.Fee structure: Ranges between Rs42,600 and 2 lakh per year.Expert speak: “A student should explore literature, should have an interest in research and holistic sciences, and an understanding of Sanskrit, Hindi and English.” Dr Sandeep Madaan Senior Consultant, Aastha Ayurveda, DelhiadvertisementTop 5 colleges Shri Dhanwantri Ayurvedic College & Hospital, Chandigarh www.shridhanwantrigroup.com Government Ayurveda College, Gwalior gacgwalior.nic.in Indian Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine and Research, Bangalore firstname.lastname@example.org St. Johns Medical College, Bangalore stjohnsadmissions.in Madras Medical College, Chennai www.mmc.tn.gov.inPet projectsBachelor of Veterinary SciencesBy Arushi ThapaA career option many children consider at a young age, veterinarians are regarded as the most compassionate doctors out there. Fearless and noble, this branch of medicine requires a deep understanding of animal psychology and immense patience. Bachelor of veterinary sciences is a course that deals with the surgery and handling of animals and livestock. It is an undergraduate programme for students interested in animal health and a career in veterinary sciences. The duration of this course is five years, divided into nine semesters, including a six-month long internship.Career prospects: Veterinarians can work with government animal husbandry departments, dairy farms, sheep and rabbit farms, piggery farms, race clubs, stud farms and more. They may also join academic institutions as faculty or set up their own clinics. Veterinarians are also recruited by zoos, aquariums and laboratories. They earn upwards of Rs50,000 per month.Eligibility: 10+2 education and with minimum 50 per cent in physics, chemistry and biology.Fee structure: Ranges from Rs70,000 to 3 lakh per year.Top 5 collegesVeterinary College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu www.vcrilibraryopac.comRajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner www.rajuvas.orgRanchi College of Vererinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Ranchi www.bauranchi.orgBombay Veterinary College, Mumbai www.bvc.org.inIndian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly www.ivri.nic.inNatural touchBachelor of Homeopathic Medical ScienceBy Megha SarinBachelor of homeopathic medical science (BHMS) can be pursued through formal university study or distance education programmes. The duration of the course is five years, which includes four years of classroom study and one year of internships. Career prospects: A student may pursue further studies or consider employment opportunity as part of the faculty in a medical college. In the public sector, the salary of a doctor ranges between Rs25,000 and Rs35,000 per month.Eligibility: 10+2 education with 50 per cent and joint entrance test followed by an interview.Fee structure: Ranges between Rs25,000 and Rs40,000 per year.Top 5 CollegesGovernment Medical College,Patiala www.gmcpatiala.com Maharashtra University Of Health Sciences, Nasik www.muhs.ac.in Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot www.bfuhs.ac.in Nehru Homeopathic College, Delhi www.nhmc.delhigovt. nic.in Bharati Vidyapeeth, Pune www.bvuniversity. edu.inThe alchemistBy Kavya KathpaliaBachelor of PharmacyA successful pharmacist needs to have exceptional analytical skills and a keen interest in pharmacy research. Bachelors in pharmacy is a four-year programme, which focuses on the study of biology, biochemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry (both organic and inorganic), medicines, pharmacology, and physiology.Career prospects: Opportunities include working with pharmaceutical multinationals, becoming a scientist, quality control officer, clinical research professional or a drug inspector. The average salary for a pharmacist varies between 1 lakh and 5 lakh per year.Eligibility: 10+2 education with minimum 50 per cent in physics, chemistry and biologyFee structure: Ranges between Rs11,000 and 2 lakh per yearExpert speak “The job of advising and dispensing medicine requires your ethical values to be in place.” Namita Jindal, Independent pharmacist, MumbaiTop 5 collegesManipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal manipal.edu University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences Panjab University, Chandigarh uips.puchd.ac.in Poona College of Pharmacy, Pune www.bharatividyapeeth.edu Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Delhi dipsar.ac.in Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, Ahmedabad www.nirmauni.ac.inThe nurturersB.SC in Nursing By Kavya KathpaliaDuties of a nurse include dispensing medicine, keeping records of a patient’s medical progress and operating medical equipment, as well as performing administrative and routine functions. The bachelor of science in nursing is a four-year course, which entails training in theory and practical aspects of nursing along with basic knowledge about first aid and midwifery.Career prospects: A nurse may be employed in government or private hospitals or health departments. One may also seek employment in the Indian Red Cross Society, the Indian Nursing Council, or State Nursing Councils. Salaries vary between Rs7,000 and Rs72,000 per month.Top 5 collegesDepartment of Nursing, AIIMS, Delhi www.aiims.edu RAK College of Nursing, Delhi rakcon.com Manipal College of Nursing, Manipal manipal.edu Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani College of Nursing, Mumbai www.kdanursingcollege.com B M Birla College of Nursing, Kolkata www.birlaheart.orgEligibility: 10+2 education with 45 per cent aggregate in physics, chemistry and biologyFee structure: Ranges between Rs25,000 and 1.8 lakh per year.Expert speak: “A nurse should have the ability to give comprehensive care with a therapeutic touch.” Rajwinder Kaur Nurse, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, DelhiTraditional treatmentBachelor of Unani Medicine and SurgeryBy Megha SarinUnani medicine, a traditional system of healing and healthcare originated in the practice of ancient Greek physicians. The bachelor of unani medicine and surgery (BUMS) is an undergraduate degree, the duration of which is five-and-a-half years. It entails a four-anda-half year academic session, along with a year-long internship programme. Career prospects: In the public sector, one earns up to `15,000 per month. In the private sector, salaries are upwards of Rs15,000.Eligibility: 10+2 education with 50 per cent in physics, chemistry and biology. Plus scores of CET.Fee structure: Ranges from Rs20,000 to Rs60,000 per year.Expert speak: “It is not a common field. An aspirant is required to have good knowledge of different chronic diseases.”Dr Aslam Javed Hakim, Affiliated to RML Hospital, DelhiTop 5 collegesMaharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nasik www.muhs.ac.in Dr NTR University of Health Sciences, Vijayawada ntruhs.ap.nic.in Ayush and Health Science University, Raipur www.cghealthuniv.com Deoband Unani Medical College, Saharanpur www.dumc.co.in Eram Unani Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow www.eramedu.org Medicine MastersBy Karishma GoenkaTwo pivotal postgraduate degrees to pursue after MBBSMaking the cut master of surgery (MS) Armed with a scalpel and forceps, surgeons live life on the edge. They battle death every day, saving lives when all else fails. It is a tremendous responsibility and the course that trains them for this is the master of surgery (MS). This post graduate course is conducted over a period of three years and can be pursued by those students who have completed their MBBS from a college certified by the Medical Council of India (MCI). Students have the option of specialising in general surgery, orthopaedics, opthalmology, obstetrics and gynaecology among others over six semesters at the end of which they have to submit a dissertation on a topic of their choice.Here, if one has already done a two-year diploma in any specialisation, the course duration for them is reduced to three years. The perk of this profession is the money, where one major surgery might equal the salary of any other medical specialisation. Also, a qualified surgeon can undertake the job of a general physician, but not vice-versa, so it is an all-encompassing degree of medicine.Career prospects: A graduate can work at hospitals, health centres, research institutes or laboratories. They can also start their own private practice or teach at a medical college with this degree in hand. Salaries for a surgeon can start from Rs70,000 and go higher depending on your area of specialisation.Special treatmentDoctor of Medicine (MD) While surgeons deal with only the hardcore aspects of medical science, a doctor of medicine holds the responsibility of prevention and curbing of illness and disease before it gets to the surgery phase. This three-year post graduate course equips MBBS graduates with a more in-depth understanding of the specialisation of their interest.Here, the options for a student to specialise in is more extensive, few of which are anaesthesiology, paediatrics, radiology, pathology, forensic medicine and general medicine. The choice between MS and MD is usually a matter of preference towards surgery. A student needs to be prepared for copious amounts of study and submit a dissertation at the end of their term.Career prospects: A graduate can work at hospitals, health centres, research institutes or laboratories. They can also start their own private practice or teach at a medical college with this degree in hand. Salaries for a physician can start from Rs50,000 and go higher depending on your specialisation.Top 5 collegesAll India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi www.aiims.edu Armed Forces Medical College, Pune www.afmc.nic.in Christian Medical College, Vellore www.cmch-vellore.edu Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, Pondicherry jipmer.edu.in Kasturba Medical College, Manipal manipal.eduHow to choose wiselyPublic Vs PrivateExperts from leading public and private medical colleges talk about the advantages of opting for one over the other.Leading the packDr Balram Airan, Professor, Cardio Thoracic and Vascular Department, AIIMS, DelhiEstablished in 1956, the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Delhi, has consistently held the number one position in national level college rankings for medical education. The hospital is known for maintaining high standards of quality, while at the same time providing medical care at low costs to a large number of patients, many being below the poverty line.Fees: The fee structure of AIIMS is far more affordable as compared to private institutions-at approximately Rs1,000 per year, whereas, the standard of education is superior compared to private institutions.Eligibility and entrance: The AIIMS entrance exam, is now conducted online the world over. Open counselling for the students is carried out and after the exam, students can choose subjects of their interest in accordance with their ranks. Placements: The students reflect the brand value of AIIMS and are always preferred over others when it comes to placements. There is a structured programme for the students. For instance, if they are in the clinical field, they are given opportunities to start their own clinic, on the medical or the surgical side.Course structure: The course structure is a mix of practical and theoretical studies. The college consists of clinical labs and well-equipped laboratories in the para clinical field. Students are taught by doctors from various hospitals, including AIIMS. They are taught how to examine patients, read the diagnosis and carry out treatment.Infrastructure: The college has one of the best libraries, along with highly equipped laboratories unmatched by any private institution.The emerging playerDr M Venkatraya Prabhu, Dean, Kasturba Medical college, Manipal University, MangalorKasturba Medical College functions under the Manipal University and was started in 1969. It has always been placed amongst the best five medical colleges in India as per national level rankings. The college is known for its larger-than-life health sciences library and its pathology and anatomy museums are some of the largest in Asia.Fees: The fee structure of Kasturba Medical College is decided by the state fee fixation committee which is set at 6.5 lakh per year for the MBBS courses. This is mainly because the quality of education is superior to public institutions and this quality comes at a cost.Eligibility and entrance: We have standard eligibility criterion-students are awarded admission based on their scores in the common entrance test (CET). We have an equation of 85 per cent Indian students, while 15 per cent is reserved for foreign students.Placements: Kasturba Medical college stands as a constituent college under Manipal University. We encourage our students to get into medical residency programmes abroad; last year about 25 per cent of our graduates qualified for the same. Ten per cent opted for teaching as a career.Course structure: At the undergraduate level, the course structure focusses more on theory which forms 55 per cent of the assessment, while practical learning is kept at 45 per cent. When a student gets to the post graduate level, 70 per cent of the courses focus on practical knowledge, the rest being theory. Students also indulge in extra-curricular activities.Infrastructure: The entire campus is air-conditioned and comprises wi-fi enabled classrooms and laboratories. The equipment is upgraded every two years.Pay your way through Med schoolFive things a medical student should keep in mind to avail a trouble free loan from financial institutions.By Neeraj Saxena,CEO, Avanse Education Loans, MumbaiMedical education is a path that appeals to those who are extremely passionate about the well-being of the society. However, the process of becoming a doctor is long drawn and expensive. The growing number of private medical colleges has primarily contributed to the rising cost of medical education thereby, posing a challenge for students and their families in paying for it, which includes tuition fees, living expenses, books, and supplies. Banks and other private education finance companies have come forward to offer education loans, on easier terms. A student planning to pursue medical education should consider these points before availing a loan.Admission confirmation: Confirmed admission in a college or university is a must to secure a loan for one’s medical education. Lenders maintain a list of recognised educational institutes for providing loans and rank them on the parameters of education quality, courses offered and placements. Lenders also enter into a tie-up with such institutes to provide education finance to students. This makes it very critical for students or parents to approach a lender that already has a tie-up with the institute in order to get loans on easier terms.Cost evaluation: Students opting for a medical education loan should first decide on the amount they can pay from their savings and the amount that needs to be borrowed from the financial institution. Students planning to pursue their medical education abroad, on the other hand, should also check currency rates as they may end up paying a higher fee.Financial history: Students should ensure they have all the relevant documentation required before they apply for a medical education loan. The student should ensure that the co-signer (which is usually the parent or guardian) has all relevant income and financial documents including income tax assessment order for the previous two years, a brief statement of the assets and liabilities of the co-signer and bank statements among others. Additionally, since most medical loans are higher ticket sizes and usually require a collateral security such as property, the student must ensure that all relevant property documents are in order.Budget yourself: The student should understand the repayment schedule of the loan including any moratorium period offered. Budgeting is important and one should be prepared to cut costs on unimportant things and focus on repaying the loan as quickly as possible. Loans become burdensome after a while, so its better to clear it before the toll is felt. The student should be prepared to use extra cash or bonuses to make part pre-payments.Research interest rates: Students and parents should always look for an education loan that has longer repayment tenure. This will ensure lower EMIs. Majority of the new loans are sanctioned to customers with a credit score greater than or equal to 700. Therefore, higher the credit score, better the chances of the education loan getting approved with a competitive interest rate.What’s next in medical scienceSeven new trends in the field of medicine and surgery.By Dr PL Kariholu, Dean, School of Medical Science and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.By DR Shyam Lal Singla, Vice-Chancellor, Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentary University (SGT), Gurgaon. Medicine is an ever-evolving field that touches the lives of all sections of society. Almost everyone equally benefits from new developments and any emerging specialisation in the field of medicine. Most medical graduates opt for the more seasoned branches of medicine due to lack of knowledge of these unconventional new fields and postgraduate education options. While robots are taking over surgical responsibilities, other fields such as lifestyle medicine, sports medicine, emergency medicine, and geriatric psychiatry are mushrooming in tune with our dynamically changing social structures.Palliative care and nuclear medicine, on the other hand, have started to play an important role in diagnosing and treating chronic diseases at both macroscopic and molecular levels. Some of these offbeat branches of medicine are elaborated below.1 Emergency medicineis now officially recognised as specialty by the Medical Council of India. It is a field of practice based on knowledge and skills required for prevention, diagnosis and management of acute and urgent aspects of illness and injury affecting patients of all age groups with a full spectrum of physical and behavioural disorders.Such physicians are well trained to take care of patients who need advanced cardiac support and patients with poly-trauma or stroke till the concerned specialist takes over. Medical emergencies are increasing at an exponential rate every day. In developed countries, it is already a well-developed speciality, however in India, it is picking up gradually. Study atApollo Hospitals Medvarsity, Hyderabad; Amrita University, Chennai.2 Geriatric medicineis a speciality that focusses on healthcare of elderly. An aged body is different physiologically and psychologically from a younger adult body as with advancement of age all functions of the body decline. In geriatrics, considerable research is currently focusing on increasing longevity and reducing mortality. A similar effort is needed for psychiatric disorders related to ageing. Especially in India, with the gradual breakdown of joint families, changing value systems and urbanisation, there is a greater need to pay attention to elderly care and mental health issues. Study atInstitute of Home Economics, Delhi; Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai.3 Lifestyle medicineis a clinical specialty for physicians who treat chronic conditions like heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure which are connected to lifestyle factors such as nutrition, physical activity and chronic stress. Such specialists may prescribe behavioural modifications for two reasons; to reduce the risk or to treat and reverse existing disease. Study atInstitute of Lifestyle Medicine, Harvard University, US.4 Nuclear medicineinvolves application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Unlike radiology which tells us about anatomy, it is a physiological imaging modality. PET and SPECT are two most common imaging modalities in nuclear medicine. This is used to detect a host of ailments through lung scans, heart scans, bone scans, brain scans and other processes to detect tumours and Parkinsons disease.It is also useful for thyroid conditions like hyperthyroidism, evaluation of liver diseases and coronary arteries. On the molecular level, use of microscopy has been challenged by the use of spectrometry, diffraction studies and immunofluorescence. Study atSchool of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University, which has a four year integrated course.5 Robotic surgeryfollows the evolution of surgery from open to laparoscopy. The first documented use of a robot-assisted surgical procedure occurred in 1985 and the field has grown speedily since. Many laparoscopic surgical procedures, urological procedures like prostate surgery for cancer prostate, nephrectomise, thoracic procedures are being done using robots. The robots allow surgical procedures to be done with greater precision than an unaided surgeon. Gamma knife surgery which was unheard of a decade ago is now being used for treatment of spinal, cerebellopontine angle and brain stem tumours.Minimal invasive surgery is now the rule, while cosmetic surgery is no longer limited to flaps, but has extended to every part of the body from hair and skin to liposuction. Few of the benefits of robotic surgery as compared to traditional open surgery include faster recovery, less pain and bleeding, less risk of infection, shorter hospital stay and smaller scars. Now with the rise of technologies like robotic surgery and artificial intelligence, we are entering a phase where robots might be able to do every job that requires a human being only with greater efficiency. Study atWorld Laparoscopy Hospital, Gurgaon; or Medanta Medicity in Gurgaon.6 In sports medicine, most of the injuries were corrected via open surgical techniques earlier. But if we look at the present scenario, arthoscopic surgery is the standard of care in the sports medicine, undoubtedly having revolutionized and positively impacted the way we understand our patients injuries and return our athletes to the playing field. Study atNetaji Subhas National Institute of Sports, Patiala.7 Palliative careinvolves multidisciplinary approach to a patient with serious illness. It focuses on providing medical care for improving quality of life not only of the patient but also the family. Palliative care physicians increase comfort of patients by lessening their pain, controlling symptoms and lessening stress for the patients and their families. Only few centres in our country have started postgraduate course in this speciality. With increase in the patients of malignancy, the demand for palliative care specialists has increased. Malignancy a few decades ago meant certain death.Now we are at a stage wherein early diagnosis by surveillance is the goal. Newer surgical techniques, modern chemotherapeutic agents, targeted therapies, monoclonal antibodies, nano particles are now giving treatment of malignancies a more meaningful shape. Gene therapy is now being used for treatment of lymphoblastic leukemia and joint disorders. Stem cell therapy is a newer modality of treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. Deep brain stimulation is also now commonly used for treatment of tremors and Parkinsons. Study atTrivandrum Institute of Palliative Sciences (TIPS), Kerala.Health in your handsBy Dr Naresh Trehan, Chairman & Managing Director, Medanta- The Medicity, GurgaonThe road to being a doctor is tough. Be prepared for long, tiring hours at work and have patience to take care of the sick.In the early days, medicine was one of the few careers you could choose as opposed to the overflowing pot of opportunities the world has to offer today. Being one of those children who loved to create things with my hands, which had me interested in fields such as aeromodelling, I grew up to realise that I wanted to pursue a career through which I could take these skills to the next level.When in college studying medicine, I noticed that India had virtually no standing in the field of heart surgery, training and research, despite the fact that heart ailments were one of the most common causes of death at the time; I wanted to arm myself with as much as knowledge and skill sets in the field. As a doctor, you garner utmost respect and the satisfaction achieved is unrivalled. As a veteran now, I feel these are a few of the things you can keep in mind when pursuing career in medicine.Temperament matters: When deciding to take up a career in medicine, every mindset has its own priorities, and a mindset which harbours the feeling of caring for people is the first attribute which is essential to being a doctor. You will actually be doing something worthwhile for not only yourself, but other people too, and the greatest satisfaction you can achieve is to save a life.Financial stability: Once you are done with your training, one thing you can be sure about is that a reasonably good financial status is a guarantee in this field. A good MBBS degree behind your name will ensure that you will never starve or be without a job. The must-haves: To be a good doctor, the ability to be caring, an unlimited stamina, patience and a desire to grow and progress mentally, every minute is a must as you will be challenged several times on a daily basis. So, you will work on the principle that if you are not better today than yesterday, the last 24 hours have been a complete waste. The challenges faced by a doctor do not exist in any other profession.Tackling challenges: The road to becoming a successful doctor is an exceptionally long one, more so to becoming a specialist. The subsequent pursuit of a postgraduate degree due to an acute shortage of students is marred by an unfortunately large capitation fees most of the time, and thus achieving this training on the strength of your academic performance will go a long way.Choosing a specialisation: I feel the best way to choose a speciality is going with what your natural talent is. Since I loved creating, and being ambidextrous benefitted me a great deal; cardiology for me was a way to continue working towards this innate passion of mine.The new and upcoming avenues: From the nascent stage of merely treating a disease, moving on to early detection, and prevention, a major focus of medicine today is “wellness”, which entails keeping people away from diseases altogether. Another avenue which is becoming excessively popular is incorporating modern medicine with Ayurveda or traditional forms of treatment, commonly known as holistic therapy. Also, regenerative and molecular medicine are areas with great potential.