Mother of Peanut

first_imgWorking to understand the genetics of peanut disease resistance and yield, researchers led by scientists at the University of Georgia have uncovered the peanut’s unlikely and complicated evolution.Researchers working as part of the International Peanut Genome Initiative have previously pinpointed one of the peanut’s two wild ancestors and shown that the peanut is a living legacy of some of the earliest human agricultural societies in South America. Since then the team has mapped the entire peanut genome and identified the crop’s second wild ancestor and the novel mechanism by which the shy, seed-hoarding plant generated the diversity we see today.“Because of its complex genetic structure, sequencing peanut was only possible using very recent developments in sequencing technology. The result is of unprecedented quality, and provides a reference framework for breeding and improvement of the peanut crop, and a whole new set of insights into the extraordinary genetic structure of peanut,” said David Bertioli, Georgia Research Alliance Distinguished Investigator and peanut researcher at the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.Bertioli conducts his research through the CAES Institute for Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics, which is home to some of the world’s foremost experts in this area of crop science and has been prolific in providing new genomic tools and information to help plant breeders around the world develop more sustainable, productive crop varieties.The team’s most recent paper was published in the journal Nature Genetics and is available at doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0405-z.According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, farmers around the world grow 44.9 million metric tons of peanuts on more than 64 million acres. The crop is a staple food in many parts of Africa and Asia and is a source of peanut butter, snacks and cooking oil in the U.S. In Georgia alone, farmers grow $825 million in peanuts each year.Despite their importance as a crop, plant researchers haven’t had many of the genetic tools needed to speed up the introduction of more sustainable and productive peanut varieties. That was because, until recently, scientists had been unable to map the peanuts’ hypercomplex tetraploid genome. The Peanut Genome Initiative’s international collaboration and advancements in technologies and data processing yielded the breakthroughs.Peanut genome sequencedThe bedrock of the team’s discoveries was the sequencing of the genome. Because the peanut originated from the hybridization of two wild ancestral species thousands of years ago, the initial phases of the project involved researchers developing genome sequences for those ancestors. Together, the ancestral genomes made a prototype for the genetic structure of cultivated peanuts. This was published in 2016 at nature.com/ng/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ng.3517.html.This month, the Peanut Genome Initiative discussed the entire genome sequence for the modern cultivated peanut in a paper called “The genome sequence of segmental allotetraploid peanut Arachis hypogaea.”The researchers used new advances in DNA-sequencing technologies to produce a complete genome sequence of unprecedented quality. The sequence consists of more than 2.5 billion base pairs of DNA arranged in 20 pairs of chromosomes, 10 pairs from each of the ancestral species.The information in the sequence sheds light on parts of the plant’s genetic code that control traits like seed size and disease resistance, which are important to plant breeders. But the sequence also revealed more about the origin of peanut during the dawn of agriculture in South America and on the genetic mechanisms that have generated diversity and allowed adaptation to environments around the globe.The mother of peanutUsing the new genome sequence as a framework, the team was able to analyze the variations in more than 200 of the most diverse peanuts from all of over the world. Researchers found characteristic genetic fingerprints shared by all the peanut plants tested, providing new evidence that all modern peanut varieties stem from the same original hybrid.“The new study underlines how peanut’s origin was due to very special circumstances thousands of years ago. Ancient farmers transported one species into the range of another, allowing their hybridization and the formation of a new crop species,” said Soraya Leal-Bertioli, a senior research scientist with the UGA Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics and the CAES Department of Plant Pathology. Scientists with the initiative had previously found the male donor of the original hybrid and origin of peanut’s “B” subgenome. In this new study they identified the female donor, tracking the population of wild ancestral peanut that contributed the peanut “A” subgenome in Rio Seco, Argentina. These individuals form the “mother” population of peanut.But the evidence that all modern peanuts can be traced to a single original hybrid sets up another mystery, Leal-Bertioli said. How does a plant with such a narrow genetic base develop so many variations and varieties?ShufflingMost flowering plant species rely on animals or weather to spread their pollen or seeds to other plants to generate genetic diversity. Pollen and seeds can travel for miles, spreading newly occurring traits to new populations.But peanuts, which produce their seeds underground, don’t do that. It took early human farmers and their long-distance transport of seeds to get the first two ancestral peanut parents together.Since then, however, the plant has used a new mechanism for creating diversity.The peanut has two sets of chromosomes, one from each ancestor. By analyzing more than 200 cultivated peanuts from all over the world, it was shown that different landraces and cultivars have shuffled the genetic material of the ancestors and deleted some sections altogether. Over the past the 10,000 years, this shuffling has happened thousands of times — allowing a much faster-paced generation of diversity than if the plants simply relied on mutation.In a greenhouse on the UGA campus, the Bertiolis have worked with hybrids that recreate the original ancestral peanut and observed the shuffling in real time. They documented its effects in the spontaneous appearance of different flower colors. These same genetic mechanisms generate other types of variation as well, said David Bertioli.The phenomenon explains the tremendous about of diversity seen in peanuts today, said Leal-Bertioli.For this research, the International Peanut Genome Initiative brought together scientists from the U.S., Argentina, China, India, Japan and France. The initial sequencing was carried out at the Hudson Alpha Institute in Huntsville, Alabama, and USDA Agricultural Research Service Genomics and Bioinformatics Research Unit in Stoneville, Mississippi. The project was funded by the National Peanut Board, the American Peanut Shellers Association, and other growers, shellers, manufacturers and allied industries.For more information about how UGA scientists have helped crack the peanut’s genetic code, visit www.youtube.com/watch?v=xDcmm82hIUU.last_img read more

Cargo shipments of Botox and cheese replace passengers for starving airlines

first_imgCoronavirus: Cargo shipments of Botox and cheese replace passengers for starving airlines Search quotes, news & videoslast_img

Courteney Cox Shares Funny Selfie While Microblading Brows: Pic

first_imgCourteney Cox Shares Snap of Microbladed Brows and Stars Cannot Get EnoughCourteney Cox Courtesy Courteney Cox/InstagramOMG! Courteney Cox shared the most hilarious selfie while getting a little beauty treatment.On Sunday, November 15, the 56-year-old posted a pic to Instagram of herself while microblading her eyebrows. “Had my eyebrows microbladed,” she wrote in the accompanying caption. “Too much?”- Advertisement – – Advertisement – The stars didn’t think so! Tons of A-listers chimed in on the comments, such as Lily Collins and Gwyneth Paltrow, who posted a series of encouraging heart and laughing emojis.Others praised the Friends alum. “I think it’s perfect ❤️,” Michelle Pfeiffer wrote. “Smoke show,” commented Kate Hudson and “More,” wrote Sean Hayes. “Hahaha nope spot on,” Brandi Carlile posted.Then there were other celebs who couldn’t wait to get in on the joke, writing that they didn’t notice anything off. “I don’t see the difference,” Jesse Tyler Ferguson joked. “Wait! What?? I see no difference! 💋” Kathy Najimy posted.- Advertisement – Microblading is favored by many celebrities, from Serena Williams to Tori Spelling. Back in August, Spelling shared a before-and-after pic of her brows, praising the microblading process. “Ok, I finally took the BROW PLUNGE. I know sooooo many people who have tried #microblading but honestly I was terrified to do it,” she wrote in the accompanying caption.But after over-plucking throughout the ‘90s, she decided to give it a go. “Who knew brows could literally boost your self confidence! I feel so good about myself right now. Thank you my friend! So natural. So easy. So brilliant.”Listen on Spotify to Get Tressed With Us to get the details of every hair love affair in Hollywood, from the hits and misses on the red carpet to your favorite celebrities’ street style ‘dos (and don’ts!) “I’m not seeing anything different than normal,” Geoff Stults wrote. “Am I missing something?”Courteney Cox attends The Last Ship musical Courteney Cox Shares Snap of Microbladed Brows and Stars Cannot Get EnoughCourteney Cox attends ‘The Last Ship’ musical at Ahmanson Theatre in Los Angeles on January 22, 2020. Ryan Miller/ShutterstockHowever, our favorite comment came from Schitt’s Creek actress Sara Levy, who hilariously wrote, “Dad?” Of course, she’s referencing her father Eugene Levy’s legendary dark, thick brows.The microblading was done by microblading artist and owner of cosmetic tattoo studio, Audrey Glass. She reposted Cox’s selfie to her Instagram Story, writing, “Nothing like a client who has a good time with the process!” Then she responded to Cox’s question, “Is there such a thing as too much brows?!” Honestly, in this day and age, not really.- Advertisement –last_img read more

WHO report explores patent issues concerning flu viruses

first_imgOct 17, 2007 (CIDRAP News) – The World Health Organization (WHO) yesterday released a report on patenting issues related to influenza viruses, following up on a resolution adopted by the World Health Assembly in May to address the concerns of Indonesia and other developing countries about access to pandemic flu vaccines and treatments.The report was prepared by the Geneva-based World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and will be presented at a WHO intergovernmental meeting on virus sharing and access to vaccines, which will take place in Geneva from Nov 20 through 23. Like the WHO, WIPO is a United Nations agency.Indonesia stopped sending H5N1 samples to the WHO last December as a protest, saying the country couldn’t afford the vaccines that drug companies would develop from the virus samples they submitted. Since then Indonesia has shared only a few samples.Indonesia’s action raised the possibility that it and other countries affected by H5N1 flu might claim legal ownership of H5N1 isolates. Researchers need H5N1 samples to track the virus’s evolution and drug susceptibility and to develop vaccines.The 41-page WHO report emphasizes that its purpose is to provide technical background information on patent issues related to influenza viruses, not to address questions such as benefit sharing, virus surveillance, or vaccine production.The pace of patent activity surrounding H5N1 and other avian flu viruses has picked up dramatically, the report says. The first patent applications was made in 1983, but 35% of all patent requests referring to avian flu viruses or H5N1 were made in the first 9 months of this year. “There is considerable diversity in this activity, with publications from over 100 different actors representing a mix of private firms, individual inventors, public sector institutions, and government agencies,” the report notes.In reviewing general patent law principles, the authors state that naturally occurring substances that are not altered by human interventions are not considered patentable. “Hence, a wild flu strain as such would be inherently unpatentable—put simply, it cannot be seen as an ‘invention’, the fit subject matter of a patent,” the report says.Also, there is no international patent, the authors say. A Patent Cooperation Treaty exists to administer international patent applications, but to enforce patent rights, a party must actively seek patents though a country’s national system or a regional group such as the European Patent Office.The authors, while not making definitive legal assessments, highlight several observations. Among them:Early, open publication of the gene sequence of a newly isolated flu virus strain would preclude patent protection, but would facilitate broad-based research and development.Sequencing a gene using regular laboratory techniques is not likely to be considered inventive or nonobvious enough to warrant a patent.Unless there is a clearly disclosed and defined new and useful function, most countries deny patent protection for gene sequences.Initial searches did not find any patents for wild viruses, though there were several for newly engineered genetic materials such as synthetic virus-like particles (VLPs), methods of producing them, and vaccines produced from them.Patent rights are not absolute. For example, many national patent laws allow researchers to use patented inventions for certain purposes related to research but not to commercial application.The authors write that future editions of their report will include clearer depictions of patenting scenarios along the vaccine development pipeline, such as inventions that incorporate genetic material from flu viruses and new vaccine production technologies.In the years ahead, the patent system will face several complex challenges, the report says. For example, the system will have a role in clarifying technology partnerships, will induce investments in vaccine production by affording exclusivity in certain instances, and will provide greater transparency in vaccine research and development.In line with the resolution adopted by the World Health Assembly in May, a WHO working group of 24 countries has been working on several projects, such as drafting standardized terms and conditions for sharing of viruses and devising oversight mechanisms. According to previous news reports, finalized documents will be submitted at the WHO’s intergovernmental meeting in November.See also:WHO working paper on patent issues related to influenza virusesJun 19 CIDRAP News story “Virus ownership claims could disrupt flu vaccine system”May 23 CIDRAP News story “WHO adopts resolution on flu virus sharing”Aug 1 CIDRAP News story “WHO working group grapping with virus-sharing issues”last_img read more

Dubrovnik and Rijeka are directly connected to the Lithuanian capital

first_imgCover photo: Riga, Latvia / Vivid_cafe Pixabay The CNTB adds that the presentation of AirBaltic gathered more than 100 agents and partners, and among the guests were Krešimir Kedmenec, Ambassador of the Republic of Croatia to Lithuania and Vedran Sušić, Director of the CNTB Representation for Scandinavia, which organized a special presentation of the Croatian Tourist Board. offers with emphasis on Rijeka and Dubrovnik. As part of the presentation of new flights in 2020, AirBaltic announced that Dubrovnik and Rijeka will be directly connected to Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, next year. Martin Gauss, CEO of airBaltic, pointed out that their goal is to provide the best connectivity in both directions for all three Baltic capitals. “When estimating which destinations will sail from the Baltic capitals, we first look for the most sought after among local travelers. We therefore make an additional contribution to local airports, offering new travel opportunities. By next summer, we will already be serving 16 destinations from Estonia, 11 from Lithuania and over 70 destinations from Latvia. ” “This is great news and announcements that go in favor of further increasing the number of airlines, and further strengthening the traffic accessibility of Croatian destinations. On the first flight there will be a large number of travel agents and journalists from the Baltic and Scandinavia, to whom we will present Rijeka, Dubrovnik, but also Split.”, Said the director of the Croatian Tourist Board Kristjan Staničić, adding that the planes from the new fleet Airbus A220-300 will operate on these routes. These are flights that will be active from the beginning of May to the end of October, ie the line to Rijeka will operate once a week on Thursdays, while the line to Dubrovnik will operate twice a week, on Thursdays and Saturdays. Photo: airBalticlast_img read more

Talk of the towns

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GE plans mega Mayfair scheme

first_imgWould you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletters To access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week.last_img

Indonesia’s ‘Merah Putih’ vaccine candidate to be ready for production mid 2021: Jokowi

first_img“God willing, the vaccine will be ready for production by the middle of 2021,” Jokowi said.Named after the color of Indonesia’s flag, the Merah Putih (red and white) vaccine candidate is being developed by a national consortium under the Research and Technology Ministry, led by the Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology.Read also: Indonesia secures massive supply of potential COVID-19 vaccine until end of 2021The team, comprising around 10 young researchers, is developing a vaccine specifically for the strain of the virus that has spread in Indonesia. Indonesia aims to begin producing its locally developed COVID-19 vaccine candidate by the middle of 2021, President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo said during a limited Cabinet meeting at the Bogor Palace, West Java, on Tuesday.The President claimed the national consortium tasked with developing the potential vaccine was currently in the process of making “vaccine seeds”.”The process is 30 to 40 percent done,” he said, expressing hope that clinical trials could begin early next year. Eijkman director Amin Soebandrio said previously that the Merah Putih vaccine candidate was expected to cover at least 50 percent of Indonesia’s vaccine needs.Indonesia has also secured 290 million doses of a COVID-19 vaccine candidate, to be delivered until the end of next year, following recent ministerial visits to China and the United Arab Emirates.Foreign Minister Retno LP Marsudi previously revealed that the country had secured a commitment to be sent 20-30 million doses of potential vaccines by the end of this year, some 80-130 million doses in first quarter of next year and 210 million doses for the remainder of 2021.Among the suppliers is China’s pharmaceutical Sinovac Biotech, which has been closely cooperating with Indonesia to develop its vaccine candidate. Together, they began phase III clinical trials of the vaccine candidate in August, with tests being carried out on 1,620 volunteers in Bandung, West Java.Topics :last_img read more

UK’s PPF earmarks at least £150m for direct lending move

first_imgThe Pension Protection Fund (PPF) is to begin lending at least £150m (€181m) a year to UK corporates, entering the direct lending market more than five years after the financial market caused the banking sector to contract.The £15bn UK lifeboat fund said it would seek to appoint no more than two investment managers that could act as co-investors and offer loans or private debt securities to the firms.A spokesperson told IPE: “Adding UK Direct Lending to our investment portfolio is intended to act as a diversifier within our fixed income portfolio.“This mandate fits well our need for long term fixed return assets as it will enable us to access these with investment grade companies.” In the tender notice, the PPF said it would consider lending “mainly to companies with a UK presence”, and that all transactions should be fixed-rate or index-linked, denominated in sterling.It added that any loans should be long term – at least five years – investment grade and placed directly with the borrower or through market syndication.Any applying manager must have at least a decade’s experience, as of December last year, in the UK direct lending market, and able to act as a co-investor, matching the PPF’s commitment to each company.Applicants should also already manage a portfolio of at least £3bn in assets and be able to invest a minimum of £150m a year on behalf of the lifeboat fund.Investment managers have until 4 February to apply for the mandates.A number of large UK pension funds have previously spoken of their interest in direct lending, with Steven Daniels, CIO at Tesco Pension Investment, last year telling the National Association of Pension Funds investment conference that he would be “happy to participate in [direct lending] as far as possible”.But he insisted at the time that any deals had to offer terms suitable to funds.“We are banks – potentially good banks – but we are not mugs,” he added. “We need to pay great attention to how everything is structured that we do.”Institutions across Europe have already been active in lending to small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), with the Irish National Pensions Reserve Fund a year ago investing €500m in three funds aiding domestic firms.The €36bn Fonds de Réserve pour les Retraites in France last summer also confirmed it had committed €120m to an SME financing fund backed by the government and insurance industry, while the Danish pension association F&P recently struck an agreement with its government to promote SME lending among local pension funds.Italy’s PensPlan, meanwhile, launched a fund investing in corporate bonds of SMEs in the South Tyrol region.last_img read more

Sweet-and-Sour Steak.

first_img Share Sharing is caring! Share Sweet & Sour SteakThe sweet-and-sour dishes of Canton are among the most familiar Chinese recipes.This one combines orange sections and pineapple chunks with steak and green sweet pepper in an easy stir-fried dinner.Serve over rice and garnish with orange slices. To save time, prepare the vegetables ahead of time and refrigerate until you are ready to cook.Nutrition facts * Servings Per Recipe 4 servings * Calories326 * Total Fat (g)7 * Saturated Fat (g)2, * Cholesterol (mg)36, * Sodium (mg)545, * Carbohydrate (g)51, * Protein (g)17* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.Ingredients:8-ounces beef top round steak1 small orange1 15-1/4-ounce can pineapple chunks (juice pack)2 tablespoons vinegar2 tablespoons soy sauce1 tablespoon cornstarch1 tablespoon brown sugar1/8 teaspoon ground red pepper1 tablespoon cooking oil1 medium green sweet pepper, cut into 1-inch pieces (1 cup)1 small onion, cut into thin wedges2 cups hot cooked riceOrange slices (optional)Directions:Trim fat from beef. Partially freeze beef. Thinly slice across grain into bite-size strips. Set aside.Peel and section orange. Cut sections in half lengthwise. Set aside.For sauce, drain pineapple reserving juice. Pour 1/2 cup of the reserved juice into a small bowl. (Reserve remaining juice for another use.) Stir in vinegar, soy sauce, cornstarch, brown sugar, and ground red pepper. Set aside.Pour cooking oil into a wok or large skillet. (Add more oil as necessary during cooking.) Preheat over medium-high heat. Stir-fry green pepper and onion in hot oil for 3 to 4 minutes or until crisp-tender. Remove vegetables from the wok.Add beef to the hot wok. Stir-fry for 2 to 3 minutes or until cooked through. Push beef from the center of the wok.Stir sauce. Add sauce to the center of the wok. Cook and stir until thickened and bubbly. Return cooked vegetables to the wok. Add pineapple chunks. Stir all ingredients together to coat with sauce. Cook and stir for 2 minutes more or until heated through.Stir in orange slices. Serve immediately over hot cooked rice. Garnish with additional orange sections, if desired. Makes 4 servings.Make-Ahead Tip: Prepare vegetables; cover and chill up to 4 hours. Tweet Food & DiningLifestyle Sweet-and-Sour Steak. by: – June 22, 2011 22 Views   no discussions Share Recipe source: BHG.comlast_img read more