More information: ‘Fire at will’: The emergence of habitual fire use 350,000 years ago, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 77, December 2014, Pages 196–203. www.sciencedirect.com/science/ … ii/S0047248414001778AbstractThe use of fire is central to human survival and to the processes of becoming human. The earliest evidence for hominin use of fire dates to more than a million years ago. However, only when fire use became a regular part of human behavioral adaptations could its benefits be fully realized and its evolutionary consequences fully expressed. It remains an open question when the use of fire shifted from occasional and opportunistic to habitual and planned. Understanding the time frame of this ‘technological mutation’ will help explain aspects of our anatomical evolution and encephalization over the last million years. It will also provide an important perspective on hominin dispersals out of Africa and the colonization of temperate environments, as well as the origins of social developments such as the formation of provisioned base camps. Frequencies of burnt flints from a 16-m-deep sequence of archaeological deposits at Tabun Cave, Israel, together with data from the broader Levantine archaeological record, demonstrate that regular or habitual fire use developed in the region between 350,000–320,000 years ago. While hominins may have used fire occasionally, perhaps opportunistically, for some million years, we argue here that it only became a consistent element in behavioral adaptations during the second part of the Middle Pleistocene. Citation: Habitual use of fire as told from cave near Haifa (2014, December 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-12-habitual-told-cave-haifa.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. , Journal of Human Evolution Scientists have not been content with the exercise of dating when man first used fire. While the earliest evidence for hominin use of fire dates to more than a million years ago, scientists have been keen to explore an expanded timeline as to when we transitioned from occasional use to habitual, planned use of fire. A research effort by a team of scientists has turned up evidence and they have written what they understand about a time frame of a ‘technological mutation.’ That in turn can help explain our evolution and “encephalization.” © 2014 Phys.org Journal information: Science Their study, ‘Fire at will’: The emergence of habitual fire use 350,000 years ago,” is published in this month’s Journal of Evolution. Their study suggests, as stated in a publication of the Archeological Institute of America, Archaeology, that human ancestors regularly began using fire some 350,000 years ago. The six authors studied flint tools recovered from Israel’s Tabun Cave. The authors are from the Zinman Institute of Archaeology, University of Haifa, and School of Anthropology, University of Arizona. They uncovered burnt flint material from a 16-m-deep sequence of archaeological deposits at Tabun Cave, near Haifa, Israel. According to a report in Science, the Tabun Cave is a site with a long sequence. In turn, said Ron Shimelmitz, archaeologist at the University of Haifa and study co-author, they were able to explore, step by step, how the use of fire changed in the cave. Shimelmitz also said in the Science report that the findings were consistent with data from several nearby sites. The authors wrote that “burnt artifacts are found not only within hearths but also scattered throughout the general area of excavations, a result of processes such as cleaning out of fireplaces, trampling and earth moving.” They said that “the frequency of burnt flints should be a suitable proxy for the frequency of fires within the cave.” Since the stone is so durable, burnt flints are not expected to suffer from the same degree of post-depositional alteration and destruction as are hearth features, heated sediments, charcoal and ash or even burnt bones, they added.Two factors, the flint discoveries along with data from a Levantine archaeological record, demonstrated that “regular or habitual fire use developed in the region between 350,000–320,000 years ago. While hominins may have used fire occasionally, perhaps opportunistically, for some million years, we argue here that it only became a consistent element in behavioral adaptations during the second part of the Middle Pleistocene.” They concluded that “Fire became a regular part of hominin behavior during the second half of the Middle Pleistocene.”The value of their research is in its contribution to reconstructing features of evolutionary history, including changes in anatomy and dispersal of hominins into temperate regions. Ilan Ben Zion, news editor at The Times of Israel, explained that examination of the strata in the cave found that, before roughly 350,000 years ago, “few of the stones showed signs of exposure to intense heat. After that point, an increasing number show signs of red or black coloration, cracking, and small round depressions typical of exposure to fire.” In their study, the authors said that, “We suggest that the changes in burning frequency at Tabun and Qesem not only signal the point in time where the use of fire became habitual, but also indicate that humans had mastered the art of kindling fire. Unfortunately there are no means currently available to directly determine how ancient fires were started, so the latter remains simply a hypothesis for the time being.” Credit: Junior Libby/public domain 300,000-year-old hearth found Explore further
Explore further Is natural gas a ‘bridge’ to a hotter future? As the researchers note, most studies that look into the benefits of converting “dirty” energy production to “clean” renewable resource based systems, focus on the benefit to the planet as a whole, i.e. reducing greenhouse gas emissions and thus slowing global warming. They suggest another approach is to look at the health benefits that would occur for the people that live in the area—air pollution, it has been estimated kills approximately 200,000 people in the U.S. each year—and a lot of that pollution comes from coal fired power plants. In this new effort, the researchers wondered if it might be possible to create models that would reflect the immediate health benefits to people that live in the vicinity of dirty plants if they were replaced with non-air polluting plants.As a start, the team chose to use dollar amounts spent on health care due to pollution as a metric, because it can be quantified. Next, they chose six geographical areas to evaluate: Cincinnati, northern Ohio, Virginia, Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey and Chicago. For each of those areas, the team looked at what the impact would be of replacing a coal fired plant with either a 50 MW solar or wind plant, or two pollution reduction schemes that would involve reducing the amount of electricity meted out to customers. Then, they looked at the impact that each of the types of projects would have on the amount of electricity generated versus savings or constraints on the local grid, and of course the difference in emission of pollutants such as nitrogen oxide, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide.Putting it all together resulted in a model that they could use to estimate the health benefits (in dollars) under each of the different scenarios. They found it was different for each region depending mostly on population density and baseline pollution levels—savings ranged from $5.7 to $210 million each year. The researchers believe their models could be used by planners to forecast potential health benefits when considering power generation options in the future. More information: Health and climate benefits of different energy-efficiency and renewable energy choices, Nature Climate Change (2015) DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2771AbstractEnergy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) can benefit public health and the climate by displacing emissions from fossil-fuelled electrical generating units (EGUs). Benefits can vary substantially by EE/RE installation type and location, due to differing electricity generation or savings by location, characteristics of the electrical grid and displaced power plants, along with population patterns. However, previous studies have not formally examined how these dimensions individually and jointly contribute to variability in benefits across locations or EE/RE types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a high-resolution model to simulate and compare the monetized public health and climate benefits of four different illustrative EE/RE installation types in six different locations within the Mid-Atlantic and Lower Great Lakes of the United States. Annual benefits using central estimates for all pathways ranged from US$5.7–US$210 million (US$14–US$170 MWh−1), emphasizing the importance of site-specific information in accurately estimating public health and climate benefits of EE/RE efforts. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with affiliations to several institutions in the Boston area has conducted a study to determine the immediate health benefits to different parts of the country if coal or gas fired plants were replaced with solar or wind farms. In their paper published in the journal Nature Climate Change, the team describes how they created their models and why they believe they could be used to help with planning energy systems in the future. Journal information: Nature Climate Change Citation: Study looks at immediate health benefits of renewable energy plants (2015, September 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-09-health-benefits-renewable-energy.html © 2015 Phys.org Solarkraftwerk Waldpolenz, the first Solar 40-MW CdTe PV Array installed by JUWI Group in Brandis, Germany. Credit: JUWI Group This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, the researchers could measure the electron tunneling rates, and could also control these rates by controlling the voltage to the tip of the microscope along with the distance between the tip and the substrate. So the maze problem becomes a problem of finding the combination of voltages and tip distances that maximize the time an atom occupies a certain state. Due to the variability of single-electron dynamics, each atom has slightly different electron transport properties, which means some atoms have better optimal values than others. If the atoms were used as switching devices, like transistors, then this variability would be considered a drawback because it could introduce error. But here the variability becomes an advantage because it allows billions of logic devices to be compared against each other to determine which electron transport properties help keep the atom in a certain state for the longest time.The researchers expect that the results will lead to nanoscale logic devices capable of solving a wide variety of problems of increasing complexity—all by directly simulating the problems rather than reframing them as binary processes. “Nanoscale and molecular devices used as hardware for logic have potentially many advantages, from high packing density and low-power dissipation to the high number of states that can be used to encode information,” Remacle said. “However, their dynamics is ruled by probabilistic law because of the fundamental stochastic nature of thermally activated and quantum processes. The most straightforward application is then to use nanoscale devices for the implementation of probabilistic algorithms that require significant overhead in conventional deterministic hardware. For example, the mere sampling a pseudo-random number from a probability distribution requires hundreds of instructions on a modern computer while electron tunneling at truly random times is a natural process.”In the future, the researchers plan to design other types of nanologic devices, whose implementation will require positioning the components with extreme precision.”On the theoretical side, we will continue to develop different information processing paradigms tailored on the physics of nanoscale and molecular systems, with special attention to potentialities emerging from their quantum nature,” Remacle said. “This is a fundamental effort for turning into useful technologies the increased ability to control and manipulate the matter at the nanoscale. Experimentally, the biggest challenge is to achieve full control of the position of dopant atoms in the silicon matrix with atomic precision and the design of their transport characteristics.” (Phys.org)—Scientists have built tiny logic machines out of single atoms that operate completely differently than conventional logic devices do. Instead of relying on the binary switching paradigm like that used by transistors in today’s computers, the new nanoscale logic machines physically simulate the problems and take advantage of the inherent randomness that governs the behavior of physical systems at the nanoscale—randomness that is usually considered a drawback. © 2017 Phys.org Proposed method to cause an atom to emit the same light as another atom Citation: Nanoscale logic machines go beyond binary computing (2017, March 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-03-nanoscale-logic-machines-binary.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Barbara Fresch et al. “A Probabilistic Finite State Logic Machine Realized Experimentally on a Single Dopant Atom.” Nano Letters. DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b05149 Journal information: Nano Letters (Left) The four states of the atom correspond to (right) the four rooms of a maze. The random nature of tunneling electrons in and out of an atom simulates the movement of people between rooms of the maze, and can optimize the solutions to certain maze problems. Credit: Fresch et al. ©2017 American Chemical Society The team of researchers, Barbara Fresch et al., from universities in Belgium, Italy, Australia, Israel, and the US, have published a paper on the new nanoscale logic machines in a recent issue of Nano Letters.”Our approach shows the possibility of a new class of tiny analog computers that can solve computationally difficult problems by simple statistical algorithms running in nanoscale solid-state physical devices,” coauthor Francoise Remacle at the University of Liege told Phys.org.The new nanologic machines consist of individual phosphorous atoms that are precisely positioned and embedded in a silicon crystal at a density of about 200 billion atoms per square centimeter. Single electrons randomly move in and out of the atoms due to quantum tunneling. Since each atom can hold one or two of these electrons, and each electron can occupy a few different energy levels, each atom can occupy one of four possible states. Each atom is constantly transitioning between its four states according to a certain set of probabilities, corresponding to the random movement of electrons tunneling in and out of the atom and changing their energy levels. The researchers recognized that this physical picture can be used to simulate certain computational problems. As a proof-of-concept, they looked at a relatively simple example involving the flow of visitors in a maze consisting of four rooms connected by gates. The task is to find the optimal combination of rates for opening the gates in order to maximize the time that visitors spend in one particular room.Solving this type of problem using conventional computing requires a significant amount of effort, since it typically involves analyzing the dynamics of visitors in the maze to gather information before attempting to optimize the rates of the gate openings. However, using the new logic devices, it’s possible to find the solution more directly because the problem is physically embodied by the atomic “hardware” itself. For this particular problem, the topology of the maze corresponds to an atom’s states, and the movement of visitors corresponds to the tunneling of the electrons. Explore further
Ahimsa means not to hurt someone, working on the same a group of artists put up an exhibition recently in the Capital. Ahimsa’s multidimensional concept is inspired by the premise that all living beings have the spark of the divine spiritual energy, to hurt another being is to hurt oneself.Through the language of brush on canvas all the artists tried to show their concern to promote greenery and vegetarianism at Gallery Sree Art. The works of artist represent non-violence towards animals and respecting the ecological balance ‘By embracing your inner herbivore you can bring positive changes in your lifestyle, the green meals bring peace and calm and a man can live and be healthy without killing animals for food,’ said the artist. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Works of artist Jyotika Chhabra were refreshing and full of enthusiasm. Her use of bold colours and heavy textures on canvas have brought the shades of nature together for the art lovers in the city. She made an attempt to project the supernova created in the state of reverie.Artists whose works were on display were Kanchan Chander, Ritu Kapoor Kamath, Balbir Krishan, Alka Raghuvanshi, Nupur Sakhuja Kundu, Jyotika Chhabra, Babu Xavier, Azis TM, Birendra Pani, Sangeeta Gupta, Shijo Jacob, Kiishore Chakravortee, Sunayana Malhotra and more.
Games have always existed in cultures and gaming has become ubiquitous with the information technology boom. Through this residency, Khoj tries to explore the idea of game and play through the lens of contemporary art practice. From games as tools of social engagement and change making to games which are studies in hardcore lucid experiences, this show explores it all.The participating artistes are Mohini Dutta, Shradha Jain, Zuleikha Chaudhary, Krishnarjun Bhattacharya and Vinit Nikumbh. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Says Pooja Sood, Director, ‘Khoj would like to incubate and be a stage for the co-inhabitation of multiple kinds of actors in this emergent community of local and independent game makers. This community defies any neat slotting and categorizing into any grouping such as art, science, technology or entertainment. This makes it an opportunity for an intersection with an art space like Khoj that celebrates the liminality of practices and seeks to expand the notions of art practice.’ Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixZuleikha Chaudhary, a well-known theatre person has explored the theatricality and performative aspect within games and gaming through a dramatic exploration of a basketball. She says, ‘The Bhawal case was an extended Indian court case about a possible impostor who claimed to be the prince of Bhawal, who was presumed dead a decade earlier. My project layers this trial with an audition using the framework of a game to consider being yourself and being someone else and where telling the truth and faking dissolve into each other and become indistinguishable.’ Mohini Dutta is a game developer working out of NYC and she has worked on a game that bases itself within the issues of tribal displacement in the Mahan forests. Her influences are jungle sounds, tribal aesthetics and the current political situation in Mahan. Her work explores play through the lens of cultural immersion, education, and disruptive spectacle.Shradha Jain comes from a background of film and video communication and is interested in board games. She has worked on a public installation of traditional board games. Her primary interest lies in conserving and celebrating Indian cultural heritage. She has travelled extensively in Northern and Northeastern parts of the country and is currently documenting the indigenous game culture through her travel. ‘My primary interest lies in studying and reviving the rich cultural heritage of traditional board games and play culture. I am committed to documenting and representing various forms of play that form a seamless cultural tradition overcoming geographical boundaries.’Krishnarjun Bhattacharya comes from a background in film, fantasy literature and game criticism. Having published his dystopian fantasy novel, Tantrics of Old, in June 2014, he is a graduate of the National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad, in Film and Video Communication, and has done his post graduation from the Film and Television Institute of India, Pune, in Video Editing. For this residency, he has worked on a psychological horror first person exploratory game as he likes working with stories, legends, and myths. He’s working towards a structure-less structure that allows free flow and narrative, building around long lost tales and fascinating characters. Vinit Nikumbh is an architect and is working on an App that gamifies urban planning. He also has a keen interest in cinema and urban development. When he was selected as a research fellow to work on issues of urbanism in Mumbai, he conducted a study on the issues of pedestrian access to important nodal transportation junctions in the city of Mumbai. The study culminated in a public presentation and a draft of pedestrian accessibility guidelines that could be addressed in the new development plan for the city.WHERE: Khoj Studios, S-17, Khirkee ExtensionWHEN: 4 September till 6 September 6, 2014, 11 am to 7 pm.
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (Bhel) expanded its offerings and secured 89 per cent EPC-based power projects in financial year 2014-15, thereby retaining its leadership position with a 72 per cent market share. The national power equipment manufacturer synchronised or commissioned 11,941 mw of power plant equipment — accounting for more than 10,000 mw —for the third year in a row. With this, Bhel has joined the elite club of global giants with an installed base of over 150 gw of power generating equipment Also Read – I-T issues 17-point checklist to trace unaccounted DeMO cashExpanding its offerings, Bhel secured 89 per cent of its total orders in the power sector on EPC basis, thereby retaining its market leadership position during 2014-15 with a 72 per cent market share even while operating in a difficult business environment. The company’s improved focus on project execution enabled it to garner record commissioning/ synchronisation of 11,941 mw of power plants in the domestic and international markets in 20114-15.Bhel secured orders worth Rs 30,794 crore during the just ended fiscal, an increase of 10 per cent over last year from its diversified business segments, covering both domestic and international markets. Its orders in the power sector witnessed a 22 per cent jump to Rs 24,873 crore while those in the most diversified industry segment saw a 4 per cent rise to Rs 5,201 crore in 2014-15. The company booked Rs 720 crore orders for exports and ended the fiscal with a total order book of Also Read – Lanka launches ambitious tourism programme to woo Indian touristsRs 1,01,159 crore.Bhel bagged the country’s first ever 800-mw EPC order from GSECL, Wanakbori, an EPC order for the country’s first ‘9FB Advanced Class Gas Turbine’ from KPCL for the Yelahanka CCPP (370 MW), the second largest single order worth Rs 7,688 crore for the 2×660-mw Ennore SEZ from TangedcoThe national company also signed an MoU with the newly formed Telangana state for 6,000 mw of power projects and received two significant EPC orders from TSGENCO Telangana for the 1×800 mw Kothagudem and 4×270 mw Manuguru. The orders secured involve challenging project schedules of 24 months for 270 mw and 36 months for 800 mw, in order to create benchmarks in project execution. Bhel recorded a turnover of Rs 30,806 crore (provisional) and net profit of Rs 1,314 crore (provisional) during 2014-15. The profit impact is due to low volumes as a result of the retarding force of the last three years’ market shrinkage due to issues relating to coal linkages, fund constraints, land acquisition issues, clearances, etc. The focus on cost optimisation through increased localisation of super critical technologies, higher value additions; increased vendor base and design optimisation efforts aided the company in raising margins.Bhel’s emphasis on cash realisation during financial year 2014-15 resulted in its retaining a cash surplus situation. The rising trend of debtors has also been arrested. The company’s commissioning/ synchronisation of 11,941 mw included 10,230 mw in the utility segment, 1,392 mw captive/ industrial sets in the country and 319 mw in the overseas market. Significantly, not only has Bhel surpassed the total capacity addition achieved in the 11th Plan within the first three years of the 12th Plan itself, the company has also exceeded the Ministry of Power’s target for the year by 19 per cent. A major milestone of the year was the commissioning of four overseas power plants in Rwanda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Oman. Bhel signed an MoU with HSL & MIDHANI and formed a consortium for P 75I submarines, a stepping stone towards India’s indigenous submarine-building programme. Fiscal 2014-15 was a year in which BHEL made significant progress in further consolidating its strengths and value propositions to emerge even more competitive for tapping opportunities in the next phase of economic growth of the country.
Travelogue, a solo photography exhibition by debutant photographer Amira Chanana, 17, showcased her memories from
FMCG major Hindustan Unilever Ltd (HUL) on Tuesday said that it has sold the bread and bakery business under ‘Modern’ brand to Everstone Group’s Nimman Foods Pvt Ltd for an undisclosed sum. “HUL’s decision to divest is in line with its strategy to exit non-core
An unidentified man allegedly jumped in front of an approaching train at the Tilak Nagar Metro station on Saturday in a bid to reach one platform. He died on the spot. Police have not ruled out the possibility of suicide and are investigating the matter under Section 174 of the CrPC. According to cops, the man is in his mid-forties and was crossing the Metro tracks as he wanted to go from platform number 2 to platform number 1 at the Tilak Nagar Metro station when a train crushed him. No documents were recovered from the man’s possession to establish his identity.