To determine how the endothelium influences metabolites in the brain, the scientists administered radioactive carbon-labeled glucose, pyruvate, or lactate to brain chips that had been decoupled from the BBB chips. They found that the production of both glutamine and the neurotransmitter GABA was lower in unlinked brain chips than in chips linked to the BBB. This demonstrated that products of vascular endothelial cell metabolism become substrates for the production of neurotransmitters that mediate neuronal cell information processing in the brain — suggesting that the health of our blood vessels could directly impact mind function.“The big breakthrough here is that we have teased out communication networks between cells in a way that never could have been done with traditional brain research techniques. In vivo studies simply do not offer the granularity to determine how complex these metabolic networks function in heterogeneous cell populations within living tissues,” said corresponding author Kit Parker, a core faculty member of the Wyss Institute and the Tarr Family Professor of Bioengineering and Applied Physics at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.“We are seeing here an unanticipated level of complexity that raises the bar in terms of what it will mean to successfully map the brain’s connectome.”This work was supported by the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, DARPA, the Sweden-America Foundation, the Carl Trygger Foundation, and the Erik and Edith Fernström Foundation. The human brain is the most complex and delicate of all the body’s organs, and the one most in need of protection from toxins and other harmful substances — including those we deliberately ingest. But to understand the effects drugs and disease have on the brain, scientists have needed to study how blood vessels, brain cells, and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) influence each other.That’s been a challenge. In vitro models, like cells in a dish, have been too simple, and in vivo models — human brain tissue — too complex. Now, as reported in Nature Biotechnology, researchers at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering have created a “just right” model of the BBB-brain interface using microfluidically linked organ chips that react to drugs like methamphetamine the same way the human brain does. The linked chips give researchers an unprecedented look into how the brain’s vasculature influences and regulates its metabolic function.“We realized that the brain is already so complex that we couldn’t analyze it on one chip, so we did the opposite and divided one organ onto multiple chips,” said first author Ben Maoz, a former technology development fellow at the Wyss who is currently an assistant professor at Tel Aviv University. “Organ chips were able to open up another dimension for neurological research that no other method could, decoupling a very dense organ to unveil new interactions between the different structures within the brain.”The BBB is comprised of blood vessels and a unique network of supporting pericyte and astrocyte cells. The blood vessels supply the brain with oxygen and nutrients, and they are highly selective about which molecules they allow to cross from the blood to the brain, and vice versa. When the BBB is disrupted, as it is when it is exposed to methamphetamine (“meth”) and other drugs, the brain’s sensitive neurons become susceptible to harmful damage. In addition, the BBB is thought to directly interact with the brain and help regulate its functions.,To replicate the way that supply blood vessels, the neuronal compartment, and draining blood vessels are linked in the brain, the Wyss created an “influx” BBB chip, a brain chip, and an “efflux” BBB chip, all physically distinct but connected by microfluidic channels that allow the exchange of chemicals and other substances. The BBB chip has a channel lined with endothelial cells through which flows a culture medium that mimics blood, separated by a porous membrane from a parallel channel containing pericytes and astrocytes perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF). The brain chip has a similar aCSF flow channel that is separated by another semipermeable membrane from a compartment containing human brain neurons and their supporting astrocytes.The three chips’ aCSF channels are connected in a series, creating a fully linked system in which substances can diffuse from the vascular channel across the first BBB into the aCSF, enter the brain neuronal cell compartment, flow back into the aCSF, and ultimately diffuse out across the second BBB into another vascular channel, as happens in vivo.The team cultured human cells in the linked BBB-brain chips and exposed them to meth, which is known to disrupt the junctions between the cells of the BBB in vivo and cause the barrier to “leak.” When meth was flowed through the BBB chip’s blood vessel channel, it compromised the junctions of its vascular endothelial cells and let through molecules that normally wouldn’t be able to cross. This experiment confirmed that the model worked, and could be used in research to better understand and develop treatments addressing drugs’ effects on the human brain.Something in the chips that weren’t exposed to meth also caught the scientists’ attention. They realized that cells on BBB and brain chips that were fluidically linked and cells on unlinked chips expressed different proteins. For example, cells in all of the linked chips expressed higher levels of metabolism-associated proteins and lower levels of proteins involved in proliferation and migration than cells in unlinked chips, suggesting that the different cell types do in fact help each other maintain proper function.,“Blood vessels are frequently thought to just be a barrier or a transporter of chemicals. But when we looked at the linked BBB-brain chips, we noticed that there seemed to be some crosstalk between the endothelial cells and the neurons,” said co-author Anna Herland, a former postdoctoral fellow at the Wyss Institute who is now an associate professor at the Royal Institute of Technology and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. “We also know from studies of long-term meth abusers that this drug affects the brain’s metabolism, so we started to dig deeper to see if we could characterize the metabolic link between the BBB and the brain.”The modular nature of the BBB-brain chip system also allowed the researchers to individually analyze all of the molecules secreted by discrete cell populations, and then connect the chips to trace where they traveled. The chemicals secreted by cells on the uncoupled BBB chip were largely related to neuron maintenance and protection, demonstrating that the molecules produced by the BBB give neurons chemical cues. “The big breakthrough here is that we have teased out communication networks between cells in a way that never could have been done with traditional brain research techniques.” — Kit Parker, Wyss core faculty member The Daily Gazette Sign up for daily emails to get the latest Harvard news.
Published on December 15, 2012 at 9:11 pm Contact Jacob: [email protected] | @Jacob_Klinger_ Facebook Twitter Google+ Syracuse’s win was a tale of two halves. After going a week without playing any games, the Orange started slowly and gave Canisius hope.“We were fortunate and our defense was good enough that we weren’t behind,” head coach Jim Boeheim said.The first half ended as sloppily as it was. Brandon Triche’s last-second layup, which came after a broken play, rolled into the hoop to close out an ugly first half to the roar of the the 18,120 fans inside the Carrier Dome. It put Syracuse (9-0) up by three points and the Golden Griffins (6-2) were in striking distance. That all changed in the second half when the Orange found its rhythm and cruised to an 85-61 win over Canisius.Triche’s layup at the buzzer came when Michael Carter-Williams took the ball up 1-on-1 against Canisius’s Reggie Groves and lost the ball twice, only for Triche to gain possession and make the bucket.The play typified an equally scattered first half for the Orange, one that ended with Syracuse up 35-32. The Golden Griffins outworked SU on the perimeter as well as on the boards, outrebounding SU 21-17 in the first half.AdvertisementThis is placeholder textBut the Orange would distance itself in the second half as shots began to fall and rebounds bounced more favorably. Ultimately the same height, versatility and overall physical advantages that have allowed SU to largely run through its nonconference schedule doomed the Golden Griffins to a familiar fate.“In the second half they just they came out and made some big plays, big shots,” Canisius head coach Jim Baron said. “They shot 62 percent for the second half, and made the extra pass.”SU enjoyed a size advantage, leaving Canisius to resort to fouls under the basket. Freshman center DaJuan Coleman was the main target. But he, like fellow center Baye Moussa Keita, Orange failed to make the Griffins pay in the first half. Both went 0-for-2 at the line.As a team the Orange shot just 5-of-11 at the line before halftime. The Griffins went 5-of-6.More damning was the Golden Griffins’ ownership of the boards. Only the 6-foot-10 Jordan Heath and his 6-foot-9 brother Josiah could stand up to Coleman, Rakeem Christmas or Moussa Keita, never mind SU’s lanky guards. And the Heath brothers were tepid at best. Only SU was preoccupied enough chasing around the Griffins guards that the Heaths had time to get open, receive a pass, realize they were open, and drive.“I think DaJuan got some opportunities there, he showed what he can do inside, and we’re still trying to get better on the defensive end with him,” Boeheim said. “With these smaller teams, we’re looking at three- and four-guard teams it’s really hard to play the two big guys together. It’s really hard to do.”Boeheim pointed to some long rebounds as a cause for the visitors’ edge on the boards, but there was no denying SU lacked the edge to put away its opponents early.“I thought the first half we really weren’t as good defensively as we need to be, we missed five or six free throws and missed, maybe three layups and you know, you just can’t do that,” Boeheim said. “You just can’t do that.”Triche didn’t start the second half strongly either, missing his second free throw just 10 seconds in.But then the game took a sharp turn.C.J. Fair sank a pair of free throws and Southerland hit a 3-pointer within 32 seconds of each other and suddenly the once-shaky 35-32-halftime lead had grown to a comfortable 41-32 lead that hardly shrunk.After the game, Boeheim referred to Carter-Williams as “the key.” The guard finished with 14 assists, but two plays midway through the second half signaled the end was near for Canisius.Up 50-37, Carter Williams drove down the right side of the paint, and seven feet out leapt for what would’ve been a dunk. He just missed off the back rim and was called for a charge, but it was clear Canisius was running out of gas.“At the end of the day the difference was they made shots, and they made big shots,” Baron said.With Syracuse up by 14 with just less than eight minutes left, Carter-Williams emphatically grabbed an offensive board over the head of Canisius’s Harold Washington.Canisius hung around, largely on the back of a 5-for-9 3-point shooting night from Isaac Sosa. But a furious 86-second, 7-0 run from the Orange sent the Golden Griffins packing.Christmas hit a jumper from the right elbow with 3:56 remaining. James Southerland nailed a 3 46 seconds later. Then Fair stole the ball, sparking a Southerland fast-break dunk, and finally Triche finished on the break with 2:30 remaining to give SU a 78-57 lead.Jerami Grant, Trevor Cooney and Moussa Keita all rose from the bench. Players that hardly saw the floor in the first half came on to finish an entirely different second.Said Southerland: “They were doing a good job but we just got our break.” Comments
Last Updated: 12th December, 2019 23:10 IST Hamilton Talks Informal, Says Ferrari Chief “It is common knowledge that Lewis has had conversations with (Elkann),” Camilleri told reporters at Ferrari headquarters at Maranello. “We’re expecting a lot from him next year because he’ll have a season behind him and we’re pretty sure he is a good candidate for F1 in the future,” added Binotto. “(But) that was a little exaggerated. While it was at a social event, they have mutual friends,” said Camilleri, adding that “it would be premature to decide anything today.” “We need to see both the performances, the way he adapts to the car (for the 2020 season) and his motivation for the future,” said Binotto of 32-year-old Vettel. READ | Lewis Hamilton Mocks Max Verstappen, Says Every Driver Chases Mercedes Seat Like ‘a Dog’Among these is 20-year-old Mick Schumacher, son of Ferrari legend Michael, who finished 12th in his first season in Formula 2. The 34-year-old Hamilton, who comes to the end of his Mercedes contract next season, will be bidding for a record-equalling seventh world title in 2020.Meanwhile, Camilleri pointed out that Ferrari has a “long-term agreement” with Charles Leclerc, the 22-year-old driver from Monaco who joined the team in 2015 and is under contract until the 2022 season.READ | Lewis Hamilton And Valentino Rossi Race Against Each Other On Formula 1 Track, Watch VideoLeclerc is the junior driver to four-time world champion Sebastian Vettel, whose contract at Ferrari ends after the 2020 season. Ferrari chief executive officer Louis Camilleri said Thursday that it was premature to talk about a possible move of six-time world champion Lewis Hamilton to the Italian team.Camilleri confirmed that Mercedes driver Hamilton has had “conversations” with Ferrari chairman John Elkann, but not with him nor Team Principal Mattia Binotto.READ | Lewis Hamilton Refutes Rumours About Him Crashing Valentino Rossi’s MotoGP Bike”It is common knowledge that Lewis has had conversations with (Elkann),” Camilleri told reporters at Ferrari headquarters at Maranello. “It’s not about whether he’ll make mistakes or not,” he continued, “it’s really about how he sees his future and how we see our team.” But 2021 will, in any case, be “too early” for one of the young drivers to move up from the Ferrari Driver Academy, the Italian said. Press Trust Of India COMMENT WATCH US LIVE LIVE TV “Will he be a good candidate for Ferrari? It really is too early to say.”READ | Lewis Hamilton To Ferrari? If Yes, What’s Next For Sebastian Vettel Written By First Published: 12th December, 2019 23:10 IST SUBSCRIBE TO US “It will be important to have drivers with some (Formula One) experience because the cars will be completely new,” added Binotto. FOLLOW US
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Rossview Interiors along with Donegal Tile Centre at Rossview Business Park, Letterkenny are having a Massive Clearance Sale this weekend!If you are building or renovating then Letterkenny is the place to be and their prices won’t be beaten.The Donegal Tile Centre have a large range of First Quality Wall and Floor Tiles clearing at Less than HALF Price – Wall Tiles from € 3.95 sq yrd and Floor Tiles from € 6.95 sq yrd There are vanity units from € 89, Quadrant shower enclosure and tray for only € 230 with massive savings throughout the store.There is huge savings in Rossview Interiors with a large range of Furniture at never to be repeated prices.Some examples of this are Gas Lift Storage Beds reduced from € 530 to € 260, Dining Sets from € 595 and 40% Off a large variety of occasional furniture, light fittings and picturesSo come along to the Massive Marquee Sale today up to 5.30pm and tomorrow Saturday from 9.30am to 5pm Just watch for the large Marquee from the Polestar Roundabout and take the time to browse …. You never know what you may see! Why you need to get along to the Big Marquee this weekend! was last modified: October 18th, 2019 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)
With over 20 exhibitors already secured, Letterkenny Institute of Technology’s (LYIT) Green Day is once again set to be of huge interest to businesses, households and students from all over Donegal, Derry and Strabane. Green Day will take place in LYIT on Thursday 28 November from 9.30am to 2.30pm and along with the extensive range of exhibitors, it will include a seminar hosting an international panel of experts looking at how renewable energy can help achieve Ireland’s Climate Action targets.This is LYIT’s fourth year to host the Green Day at their campus and Mary Daly, LYIT’s Estates Manager is delighted to be joining up with the multi-national EU funded SMARTrenew project led by Dr. Nick Timmons, Principal Investigator of LyITs WiSAR Lab. This strategically important €1.6m project partly funded by the Northern Periphery and Arctic (NPA) Interreg programme consists of an international consortium of partners from Finland, Norway, Iceland and the Faroe Islands together with Donegal County Council, Derry City and Strabane District Council and LYIT.“We are building on the success of last year’s event” says Mary Daly. “This year we are adding a further dimension with SMARTrenew hosting a panel of international experts, including an energy consultant from Denmark and a SMARTrenew partner from Iceland, to share with us their experiences, insights and learning on how they have embraced smart renewable energy technology, including smart energy storage in batteries and heat extraction from the sea.”Speakers will include Alan Ryan from SEAI, Ireland, Ragnar Ásmundsson from HeatRD in Iceland Eddie McGoldrick from Power on Technologies in Northern Ireland and Magda Kowalska from PlanEnergi in Denmark. The seminar will be of interest to businesses operating in this area, public sector organisations, policymakers, learners and lecturers.Alongside the seminar will be a range of exhibitors including the OPW Optimising Power initiative, recycling demonstrations with Voice Ireland, local suppliers of energy efficiency technologies and electric vehicles, information on Green Mortgages, reusable cup promotions, health & fitness checks, display of student projects and opportunities to meet the Green Campus team and learn more about the SMARTrenew project. “With the increased focus on meeting our commitments as a society to the challenges around climate change and adaptation, this is a great opportunity for businesses, homeowners, public sector organisations, students and others to call in and see what is on offer and to learn a bit more about what they can do at home or at work to assist in helping us meet our obligations to the challenges around climate change” says Mary Daly.“If you want to find out more about how to get the most out of your recycling efforts or about electric cars or energy efficient products that can help increase your homes energy rating or if you are looking for a mortgage and would like to see how you can avail of a ‘green’ mortgage, then we would encourage you to come along on the day.”The event will take place in the Main Campus from 9.30am to 2.30pm on Thursday 28 November and admission is free.Huge international interest expected for LYIT’s Green Day was last modified: November 11th, 2019 by Shaun KeenanShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)
See also: DeGale v Zuniga as it happenedJames DeGale took another step towards a world title shot with a wide points win over durable Colombian Fulgencio Zuniga at the Sports Arena in Hull.Harlesden’s European super-middleweight champion – now also the WBC Silver champion after this victory – dominated the fight.His 35-year-old opponent came to the ring with plenty experience, having fought former world champions Kelly Pavlik and Lucian Bute and faced Tavoris Cloud for the IBF light-heavyweight crown.But that was belied by a cumbersome style, which DeGale exploited by using his superior boxing skills – not to mention a significant reach advantage.Zuniga hit the canvas after DeGale landed with a right hook in the second round, but the referee called it a slip.And the official helped out Zuniga again in the third.A great left sent him to the floor and DeGale might have pulled off a stoppage victory with a follow-up barrage of punches had the referee not bizarrely stepped in and temporarily halted the fight, seemingly after thinking he had heard the bell.DeGale hurt his opponent again in the following round, both with body shots and a couple of big lefts.The pattern continued for the rest of the contest as DeGale landed with crisp combinations and Zuniga plodded gamely forward, hoping to get lucky with swinging punches.He did have some success in the later rounds as the Londoner slowed down, but DeGale was a convincing winner with all three judges scoring the bout 118-109 in his favour. See also:James DeGale talks about his recent win and future plansDeGale opts to give up European titleDeGale set for March title defenceGroves and DeGale in new war of 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 Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
14 December 2015South Africans should be encouraged during this year’s Reconciliation Month, running throughout December, to reach out to one another and help to build a united nation, according to the Department of Arts and Culture.This year’s Reconciliation Month takes place under the theme, “Bridging the divide: building a common South African nationhood towards a national developmental state”.Minister Nathi Mthethwa launched Reconciliation Month at the end of November at the War Museum in Bloemfontein, where he unveiled plaque in the Garden of Remembrance to honour men, women and children who perished in the concentration camps of the South African War – or Anglo Boer War – that was fought between 1899 and 1902.The minister also opened the Sol Plaatjie Exhibition space, which looks at the participation of black people in that war.“Reconciliation Month says that we ought to be walking this common road hand-in-hand, conscious of our past and confident of our future, no longer at the mercy of systems that divided us into black and white and men and women and saw no measure of equality between us,” he said.“Reconciliation Month reminds us that in 1994 with the first democratic elections, we set South Africa on the pathway towards a united, non-racial, non-sexist, democratic and prosperous reality characterised by nation-building and social cohesion and a better life for all.”OriginsThe Day of Reconciliation is an annual public holiday observed on 16 December. It was previously known as Dingane’s Day and Day of the Vow. It is a significant day in South African history; its origins can be traced to the Battle of Blood River in 1838. The Voortrekker army defeated the Zulu army at the battle in the Ncome River, which was fought over land ownership.This year’s Reconciliation Month will focus on recognising and highlighting the trials and tribulations of the Khoi and San people and the role they played in the liberation struggles against colonialism and apartheid.Did you know !ike e: xarra //ke on the code of arms is a language of the /Xam people meaning “diverse people unite” #Reconciliationmonth— Arts & Culture (@ArtsCultureSA) December 4, 2015Source: Department of Arts and Culture
Holding fossil fuel companies responsibleExxonMobil’s conduct — promoting uncertainty about climate science it knew to be accurate — has generated public outrage and led New York’s attorney general to initiate an investigation into whether the company has illegally misled the public and its investors about the risks of climate change. This trend in litigation has expanded, and there are now several ongoing climate litigation suits.While important, lawsuits cannot fully address the larger issues of corporate social and political responsibility to acknowledge and address climate change. Just as Congress investigated efforts by the tobacco industry to dupe the public into believing its products were harmless in the 1990s, I believe a full and open inquiry is needed now to unmask the vested interests behind scientific misinformation campaigns that continue to delay our efforts to mitigate a global threat.At a minimum, the U.S. needs to change the system of hidden funding, in which companies such as ExxonMobil or the Koch brothers use pass-through organizations to camouflage donations to climate denial efforts. Current U.S. tax rules for nonprofit organizations, including climate-denying think tanks, do not require them to reveal their donors, enabling them to support large-scale political activities while remaining unaccountable. American voters deserve to know who is behind climate disinformation efforts, and revising nonprofit reporting laws is a good place to begin.In my view, the central concern here is nothing less than the moral integrity of the public sphere. The Declaration of Independence states that governments “derive their just powers from the consent of the governed.” But when vested interests with outsize economic and cultural power distort the public debate by introducing falsehoods, the integrity of Americans’ deliberations is compromised.So it is with the fossil fuel industry’s efforts to distort public discourse on the urgent subject of climate change. If corporations and public relations firms can systematically alter the national debate in favor of their own interests and against those of society as a whole, then democracy itself is undermined. I believe Congress can and should act to investigate this issue fully. Only then can we restore trust and legitimacy to American governance and fulfill our society’s moral duty to address climate change at a scale commensurate with its significance. Massive gap on public opinionFuture generations will look back on our tepid response to global climate disruption and wonder why the world did not act sooner and more aggressively.One answer can be found in the polarization of public opinion over climate change in the United States. The latest Gallup Poll shows that concern about climate change now falls along partisan lines, with 91 percent of Democrats saying they are worried a great deal or fair amount about climate change, while only 33 percent of Republicans saying the same.Republicans and Democrats hold very different views on climate change, as this 2018 survey shows.Clearly, a massive gap between Republicans and Democrats has emerged regarding the nature and seriousness of climate change. This partisan divide has led to an extreme political conflict over the need for climate action and helps to explain Congress’s failure to pass meaningful legislation to reduce carbon emissions. Why Hurricanes Harvey and Irma Won’t Lead to Action on Climate ChangeClimate Change Challenges the Human ImaginationThe Paris Agreement on Climate ChangeReport Warns That Climate Change Efforts Are Too SlowGood News Bad News With Climate ChangeHalf of All Americans Worry About Climate Change Just as predictedFour years after Hansen testified to Congress, 165 nations signed an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They committed themselves to reducing carbon emissions to avoid dangerous disruption of the Earth’s climate system, defined as limiting future temperature increases to 2 degrees Celsius. The signatories have now held 25 annual UNFCCC conferences dedicated to developing goals, timetables and methods for mitigating climate change, the most consequential of which are encompassed in the Paris Agreement of 2015.But as of today, not one single major northern industrial country has fulfilled its commitments under the Paris treaty, and the nonprofit Climate Action Tracker has rated the United States’ plan to achieve the Paris goals critically insufficient.There have been more than 600 congressional hearings on climate change, according to my calculations, and numerous attempts to pass binding limits on carbon emissions. Despite those efforts, the United States has yet to take meaningful action on the problem — a discrepancy compounded by President Donald Trump’s decision last year to withdraw from the treaty altogether.In the three decades since Dr. Hansen’s testimony, the scientific certainty about the human causes and catastrophic effects of climate change on the biosphere and social systems has only grown stronger. This has been documented in five Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports, three U.S. National Climate Assessments and thousands of peer-reviewed papers.Yet CO2 levels continue to rise. In 1988, atmospheric CO2 levels stood at 353 parts per million, or ppm, the way to measure the concentration of CO2 molecules in the atmosphere. As of June 2018, they have reached 411 ppm, the highest monthly average ever recorded.The effects of these increased concentrations are just as Hansen and others predicted, from disastrous wildfires in the western U.S. and massive hurricanes associated with historical flooding to extended droughts, rising sea levels, increasing ocean acidification, the pervasive spread of tropical diseases and the bleaching and death of coral reefs. RELATED ARTICLES By ROBERT BRULLE June 23, 1988, marked the date on which climate change became a national issue. In landmark testimony before the U.S. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, Dr. James Hansen, then director of NASA’s Institute for Space Studies, stated that “Global warming has reached a level such that we can ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause-and-effect relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed warming … In my opinion, the greenhouse effect has been detected, and it is changing our climate now.”Hansen’s testimony made clear the threats posed by climate change and attributed the phenomenon to human exploitation of carbon energy sources. Its impact was dramatic, capturing headlines in The New York Times and other major newspapers. As politicians, corporations and environmental organizations acknowledged and began to address this issue, climate change entered into the political arena in a largely nonpartisan fashion.Yet despite decades of public education on climate change and international negotiations to address it, progress continues to stall. Why?One reason for the political inaction is the gaping divide in public opinion that resulted from a deliberate — and still controversial — misinformation campaign to redirect the public discussion on climate change in the years following Hansen’s testimony. Polarizing public opinionThe current political stalemate is no accident. Rather, it is the result of a well-financed and sustained campaign by vested interests to develop and promulgate misinformation about climate science.My scholarship documents the coordinated efforts of conservative foundations and fossil fuel corporations to promote uncertainty about the existence and causes of climate change and thus reduce public concern over the issue. Amplified by conservative media, this campaign has significantly altered the nature of the public debate.These findings are supported by recent investigative news reports showing that since the 1970s, top executives in the fossil fuel industry have been well aware of the evidence that their products amplify climate warming emissions. Indeed, industry scientists had conducted their own extensive research on the topic and participated in contemporaneous scientific discussions.The American Petroleum Institute, an industry trade group, even circulated these research results to its members. By 1978, a senior executive at ExxonMobil had proposed creating a worldwide “CO2 in the Atmosphere” research and development program to determine an appropriate response to growing evidence of climate change.Unfortunately, that path wasn’t taken. Instead, in 1989, a group of fossil fuel corporations, utilities, and automobile manufacturers banded together to form the Global Climate Coalition. The group was convened to prevent the U.S. adoption of the Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In its public statements, the coalition’s official position was to claim global warming was real but that it could be part of a natural warming trend.The corporate drive to spread climate misinformation continued beyond fighting Kyoto. In 1998, API, Exxon, Chevron, Southern Company, and various conservative think tanks initiated a broad public relations campaign with a goal of ensuring that the “recognition of uncertainties of climate science becomes part of the ‘conventional wisdom.’”While that coalition disbanded in 2001, ExxonMobil reportedly continued to quietly fund climate misinformation, funneling donations through conservative, “skeptic” think tanks such as the Heartland Institute, until 2006, when the nonprofit Union of Concerned Scientists exposed its funding scheme. ExxonMobil — the nation’s largest and wealthiest company — continues to work with the American Legislative Exchange Council, a self-described public-private partnership of corporations and conservative legislators, to block climate change policies. Robert Brulle is professor of sociology at Drexel University. This post originally appeared at The Conversation.
Chot Reyes. Photo by Tristan Tamayo/ INQUIRER.netGilas Pilipinas coach Chot Reyes minced no words in blasting his wards following their 81-76 loss to Alab Pilipinas in a exhibition game Saturday at Meralco Gym.“We sucked big time. If we play like this we better not even go to Japan, we have no chance,” a disappointed Reyes said.ADVERTISEMENT Japan ex-PM Nakasone who boosted ties with US dies at 101 QC cops nab robbery gang leader, cohort Read Next Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH MOST READ “We better find a way to fix that. Hopefully, we have enough time. That’s something we need to fix, even before we think about Japan.”Reyes commended Alab, which he think dominated Gilas in all aspects of the game during their scrimmage.“Credit to Alab, they came in they were very prepared. They outplayed us, they outfought us, they outhustled us, they outshot us. I can’t think of one positive thing in today’s ballgame,” he said.Help is on its way for Gilas with naturalized player Andray Blatche set to arrive on Monday.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. CPP denies ‘Ka Diego’ arrest caused ‘mass panic’ among S. Tagalog NPA Olympic gymnast Aly Raisman: I was abused by doctor Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games Stronger peso trims PH debt value to P7.9 trillion View comments LATEST STORIES With one week of practice already under its belt, the Philippine national team struggled to fend off Alab, .Only Jayson Castro and June Mar Fajardo were able to crack double-digits for Gilas, which allowed Alab import Reggie Okosa to have his way down low in the closed-door tuneup game.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutGilas was listless and Reyes didn’t have the gall to point out any silver linings from the exhibition game less than two weeks before the 2019 Fiba World Cup qualifying duel against Japan on November 24 in Tokyo.“No positives at all. We need to improve on a lot. We need to learn how to play basketball. With the way we played, we looked like we don’t know how to play basketball. We can’t shoot, we can’t defend, we can’t rebound,” he said.