Community News Meow Meow to the Rescue Father of daughter that drowned at unlicensed summer camp records touching video to child and her favorite pal By DONOVAN MCCRAY Published on Tuesday, March 31, 2020 | 5:00 am EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. <span data-mce-type=”bookmark” style=”display: inline-block; width: 0px; overflow: hidden; line-height: 0;” class=”mce_SELRES_start”>?</span>The Journey of SuperMeow from D.A. Forbes on Vimeo.Doug Forbes and his wife Elena Matyas have filmed a visual love story to their daughter Roxie and her favorite stuffed animal Meow Meow.Roxie drowned at Summerkids an unlicensed summer camp in Altadena on June 28.“Meow Meow Foundation would like to share this VERY raw visual love letter with you. Maybe we can all feel a little better, smile, laugh, even cryin a good way,” Forbes said in an email to Pasadena Now.“It’s also a sneak peek into what will eventually become a book series.”Roxie entered the camp pool June 28 at about 9:25 a.m., accompanied by a counselor. About ten to fifteen minutes later, another counselor who wasworking with other campers about thirty to forty-five feet outside the gate of the swimming pool was the first person to finally notice Roxiefloating face down in the pool, the suit says.State documents show the California Dept. of Social Services substantiated two allegations that Summerkids has operated without a required licensewhich the state says “poses an immediate health, safety or personal rights risk to children in care.”The family has teamed with state Sen. Anthony Portantino, who has introduced Senate Bill 955 – “the Roxie Rules Act,” which seeks to address whatPortantino acknowledged is “a deficiency in camp licensing, inspection, and oversight.’’The state Department of Social Services and Attorney General Xavier Becerra are seeking an injunction that would prevent Altadena’s Summerkids fromopening.The video can be viewed at meowmeowfoundation.org/news/supermeow-the-journey Business News Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadena CITY NEWS SERVICE/STAFF REPORT Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday STAFF REPORT Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Community News Community News Make a comment More Cool Stuff Top of the News STAFF REPORT First Heatwave Expected Next Week Subscribe Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * Name (required) Mail (required) (not be published) Website faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Donald CommunityPCC- COMMUNITYVirtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPasadena Public WorksPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes 39 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Herbeauty12 Signs He’s Ready To Spend The Rest Of His Life With YouHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyIs It Bad To Give Your Boyfriend An Ultimatum?HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyAmazing Sparks Of On-Screen Chemistry From The 90-sHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyTop 9 Predicted Haircut Trends Of 2020HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyThese Are 15 Great Style Tips From Asian WomenHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyYou Can’t Go Past Our Healthy Quick RecipesHerbeautyHerbeauty
A few weeks ago, I had the opportunity to address a group of legislators, public officials, and industry leaders to launch Massachusetts’ inaugural Tech Hub Caucus, led by Senator Karen Spilka. The event kicked off a dialogue between leaders in the state’s tech sector and members of the Massachusetts legislature.Technology is the fastest growing industry in Massachusetts, responsible for more than 468,000 jobs, $122 billion in direct and indirect economic output, and $5.6 billion in state and local taxes. Innovations driven by the tech sector support the critical pillars of our state’s economy: healthcare, education, financial services and increasingly, state and local government. Yet, Massachusetts cannot take the growth of the tech sector for granted.During the last 20 years, we have witnessed the growth of the technology industry in other regions — not just in Silicon Valley, but also in the state of Washington, in Austin, Texas, in North Carolina’s Research Triangle Park, and more recently in New York City. Fortune magazine noted that New York-based technology startups raised nearly $1.7 billion in 2012, compared to the $1.4 billion raised by Massachusetts startups.In our business, we worry about disruption from below. A leading company’s market share rarely gets overtaken by someone larger. It’s almost always done by the up and comers. In our quest to keep Massachusetts on the leading edge of innovation and to encourage entrepreneurs, we must make sure that we strengthen the environment for tomorrow’s technologies to be developed here.The public and private sectors need to continue to work together to ensure that Massachusetts continues to be not only a national leader, but among the global leaders in science and technology and new company formation. And we have that opportunity now in the form of Big Data. Businesses, the healthcare industry, universities and governments are awash with data. Petabytes of data are rapidly accumulating in all aspects of society, driven by dramatic growth of interactive websites, social networks, online transactions, and smart phones. This data is coming at us fast, it is big, and it is rich with opportunity. Making the most of this data to solve problems will transform and accelerate the growth of our state’s core industries.To support innovation and entrepreneurship for the benefit of Massachusetts, we must make sure that we build and retain talent for the innovation economy, improve the ease and cost of doing business in Massachusetts and commit to making Massachusetts the Big Data capitol of the world. We cannot miss out on this opportunity to lead the way for the next generation of entrepreneurs.
“Afghanistan risks becoming once again a platform for international terrorists to plan and organize attacks on our homelands. And ISIS could rebuild in Afghanistan the terror caliphate it lost in Syria and Iraq,” the NATO chief said, referring to Islamic State militants. – Advertisement – In 2003, NATO joined the international security effort in Afghanistan and currently has more than 7,000 troops in the country. NATO’s security operation in Afghanistan was launched after the alliance activated its mutual defense clause — known as Article 5 — for the first time in the wake of the 9/11 attacks.Last week, Miller ascended to the Pentagon’s acting Secretary of Defense role after President Donald Trump’s sudden termination of Secretary of Defense Mark Esper.In an early Saturday morning message to Department of Defense employees, Miller said he was “weary of war” and that it was time to end America’s conflicts in the Middle East.“We are not a people of perpetual war — it is the antithesis of everything for which we stand for which our ancestors fought. All wars must end,” Miller wrote, adding that the U.S. was “on the verge of defeating Al Qaida and its associates.”“We met the challenge; we gave it our all. Now, it’s time to come home,” Miller wrote. – Advertisement – The wars in Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria have cost U.S. taxpayers more than $1.57 trillion since Sept. 11, 2001, according to a Defense Department report. The war in Afghanistan, which has dragged on to become America’s longest conflict, began 19 years ago and has cost U.S. taxpayers $193 billion, according to the Pentagon.Trump, who campaigned in 2016 on stopping “ridiculous endless wars” in the Middle East, took to Twitter last month to announce that American forces currently serving in Afghanistan will be home by Christmas.At the time, it was unclear if Trump was giving an order via tweet or reiterating a long-held campaign promise in order to appeal to voters ahead of the U.S. presidential election.Earlier this year, the United States brokered a peace deal with the Taliban that would usher in a permanent cease-fire and reduce the U.S. military’s footprint from approximately 13,000 to 8,600 by mid-July. And by May 2021, all foreign forces would leave the war-torn country.Trump has previously directed the Pentagon to reduce the U.S. fighting force in conflict zones. In 2018, Trump tweeted that the United States would be withdrawing troops out of Syria, a move that sent a shockwave through the Pentagon and contributed in part to the resignation of then-Defense Secretary James Mattis. Trump later reversed his decision to withdraw from Syria.In May, Trump complained on Twitter that America’s role in Afghanistan has been reduced to a “police force” and not a “fighting force.”When asked about the tweet by reporters during a White House event, Trump said that the U.S. could go back to Afghanistan if needed.“We can always go back if we have to. If we have to go back, we’ll go back, and we’ll go back raging,” Trump said in May. WASHINGTON — Acting Pentagon chief Christopher Miller said Tuesday that the United States will reduce its military presence in Afghanistan to 2,500 troops and 2,500 troops in Iraq by Jan. 15.The United States has approximately 4,500 troops currently in Afghanistan and more than 3,000 in Iraq.“This decision by the president is based on continuous engagement with his national security cabinet over the past several months including ongoing discussions with me and my colleagues across the United States government,” Miller said at the Pentagon.- Advertisement – Soldiers of the 82nd Airborne Division gather their equipment before boarding a CH-47F Chinook that serves with the Task Force Flying Dragons, or 1st General Support Aviation Battalion., 25th Avn. Regiment, 16th Combat Avn. Brigade, in the Nawa Valley, Kandahar Province, Afghanistan,Photo: U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Whitney Houston | FlickrCC Members of Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team depart to conduct an equipment survey of a Department of Public Works facility Aug. 8 in Afghanistan.Photo: U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Timothy Chacon | Flickr CC “And just this morning, I spoke with key leaders in Congress as well as our allies and partners abroad to update them on these plans in light of our shared approach,” Miller said, adding that he spoke with NATO Secretary-General Stoltenberg and Afghanistan’s President Ghani on Tuesday. “We went in together, we adjust together and when the time is right, we will leave together,” Miller said.Earlier on Tuesday, Stoltenberg warned that leaving the war-torn country too soon or in an uncoordinated effort could present unintended consequences for the world’s largest military organization. – Advertisement –
Ghana winger Christian Atsu scored on his La Liga debut for Malaga as the Andalusians defeated Madrid based Getafe 3-0 at the Rosaleda. The winger, who failed the make his debut last week in Eibar, made an impact twenty three minutes into his debut by doubling Malaga’s lead.Atsu fired a left footed shot from the center of the box into the center of the goal in a move assisted by Brazilian Charles.However, the Chelsea employee did not return after halftime as he was replaced by Portuguese star Ricardo Horta. The club are expected to make a statement on his substitution on Saturday. –Follow Joy Sports on Twitter: @JoyFMSports. Our hashtag is #JoySports
RED BANK – Jody Calendar, veteran award-winning newspaper editor, accomplished communication consultant and lifelong Two River area resident, has been named executive editor/co-publisher of The Two River Times. Domenic M. DiPiero III, president of Newport Media Holdings, LLC, which owns the newspaper announced the appointment on Monday.Calendar has deep roots in the community having grown up in Colts Neck and attending Red Bank Catholic.“I’m absolutely thrilled by the opportunity to be working with Domenic DiPiero in making The Two River Times an even greater part of this wonderful community,” Calendar said. “I look forward to engaging the public on every level, providing up-to-date online coverage and presenting timely, compelling issues that reflect the depth of this wonderful and unique county.”Calendar started her newspaper career as a rookie with The Asbury Park Press and after holding most positions in the newsroom eventually ran news, personnel and budget. She also served as the managing editor of the Bergen Record.“It’s clear with her talent and background, Jody is committed to the area and The Two River Times,” said DiPiero. “We are happy to have her on board.”Calendar has consulted on four continents, is a motivational speaker, and was named one of New Jersey’s 50 most interesting people. She was named Woman of the Year by the State Advisory Council on Women, Role Model by the National Organization of Women, and honored as a Distinguished Alumna.She has served as adjunct professor at Rutgers University and Brookdale Community College for many years She has edited, written and supervised nationally award winning projects, and is a former director of the national board of the Associated Press Managing Editors. She judges hundreds of prestigious contests and works closely with Columbia University’s Graduate School of Journalism serving on its Oakes Board. She has also trained for most major newspaper chains.Having run two major newsrooms and establishing a free press in developing countries, she learned new models to adapt to a transitioning industry and has insights about what all businesses need to address in a declining economy and changing clientele.As a result, she translated that knowledge and founded Calendar Communications, LLC, a Tinton Falls based company specializing in teaching organizational change, leadership and management skills.Calendar also worked to help small businesses to recover from Super Storm Sandy with the NJ Small Business Development Centers Network.Currently Calendar serves on the Board of the Monmouth County Arts Council, Eastern Monmouth Chamber of Commerce and the Brookdale Foundation Board of Trustees. She also works closely with CPC to raise funds through its annual fund raising gala.
The Canada Winter Games opened Friday in Prince George with some 2400 athletes and 1000 coaches locked in competition in the Northern BC City.Nelsonites can be buoyed by the fact the Heritage City has a local athlete to cheer for at the Games as Nelson Nordic Ski grad Julien Locke competes in the sport of cross country.(Castlegar’s Tyler Hartleb, 16, has also been named to Team BC in long track sport in Prince George. Hartleb, from Castlegar, skated for the Nelson Speed Skating Club.)“The U23 World Championships was the primary goal for the season (but) after crashing in the final round at the World Championships trials and not qualifying for the team, preparing for the Canada Winter Games, along with the National Championships, became the next focus,” Locke told The Nelson Daily prior to the opening of the Canada Winter Games.Locke felt quite confident entering the qualifications earlier this year at Highlands Nordic in Duntoon, Ontario.Four skiers from Locke’s current club, the Black Jack Club in Rossland —Locke, Colin Ferrie, Scott Fraser and David Palmer — competed at the qualifying event.However, Locke crashed in the sprinting event, finishing third and was left off the team as only one sprinter can qualify.That shifted the focus of the 21-year-old skier to the Canada Winter Games, and future Canadian National Championships.“Individually, my aim is to win the sprint and podium in the distance events,” the 6’2”, 185-pound skier explained.“As a team, we have a good shot at success in the relay and we will be look to top the podium in that event.” Locke’s events at the two-week National competition — cross country races are scheduled for the last week of the games — are the 10-kilometer Classic Individual Start (Monday, February 23),1.6 km Classic Sprint (Tuesday, February 24), 15 km Skate Mass Start (Thursday, February 26) and 4 X 5 km Team Relay (Saturday, February 28).Locke, along with his twin brother Peter, got their start in skiing at the Nelson Nordic Ski Club.However, after a few years in the system, the two decided to join the more competitive Black Jack club in Rossland. At the time there wasn’t much happing in Nelson and Rossland ran a higher calibre team so the pair thought there was more opportunity in Rossland.The Blackjack coach also had former Canadian national team coach Dave Wood on staff. Wood continues to be Locke’s coach.Locke is hoping a bit of home-course knowledge and familiarity of the area helps during the cross country events. “I have raced on the Otway trails in Prince George since I was 14, however, the courses have all been recently upgraded to FIS standards for the games,” said Locke, who runs his own web design, photography and filmmaking business when he’s not pounding the training trails. “I raced on the new trails at the Western Canadian Championships last year. They are very well built trails with the new improvements all of the race courses are full width (10 meters), have adequate climbing, and flow together well.”“They are very fun courses to ski,” he added. Locke continues to be busy on the cross country circuit following the games.He leaves for a short training period before the National Championships in Thunder Bay and the US Super Tour Finals in Sun Valley, ID.The goal is for podium finishes in the sprints and finish top 10 in the distance races at those events.In 2016, Locke will focus on the “Tour de Canada,” a multistage World Cup event beginning in Quebec and moving across the country to finish in Canmore, AB.“Competing in that event, as well as the U23 World Championships, will be the primary goal for next season,” said Locke with aspirations to continue to compete in the sport with an aim have success at the World Championships, Olympics and World Cup circuit.But right now all eyes are on Prince George and the Canada Winter Games.A place Locke hopes to find success and bring home a medal or two for host Team BC.GAMES NOTES: Former Nelson Speed Skating Club skater Tyler Hartleb is competing in the long track event in Prince George against athletes from 14 to 19 years old. The long track event happens the first week of the games.
John Terry returns to the Chelsea side for the EFL Cup tie against West Ham at the London Stadium.Terry, fit again following a recent injury, is joined in the starting line-up by striker Michy Batshuayi.Blues youngsters Nathaniel Chalobah and Ola Aina have also been given a chance to impress, while Willian and Oscar return to the team.West Ham, meanwhile, include Andre Ayew among their substitutes, and Aaron Cresswell returns after serving a ban.Summer signing Ayew has been sidelined since going off with a thigh injury during the Hammers’ league defeat at Chelsea in the two clubs’ opening match of the season.West Ham: Randolph, Reid, Cresswell, Kouyate, Lanzini, Obiang, Noble, Ogbonna, Payet, Antonio, Fernandes.Subs: Adrian, Nordtveit, Feghouli, Zaza, Collins, Ayew, Fletcher. Chelsea: Begovic; David Luiz, Terry, Cahill; Azpilicueta, Kante, Chalobah, Aina; Willian, Batshuayi, Oscar.Subs: Eduardo, Alonso, Matic, Hazard, Pedro, Costa, Solanke.Click here for the latest Chelsea transfer gossip Ads by Revcontent Trending Articles Urologists: Men, Forget the Blue Pill! This “Destroys” ED x ‘Genius Pill’ Used By Rich Americans Now Available In Netherlands! x One Cup of This (Before Bed) Burns Belly Fat Like Crazy! x Men, You Don’t Need the Blue Pill if You Do This x What She Did to Lose Weight Stuns Doctors: Do This Daily Before Bed! x Drink This Before Bed, Watch Your Body Fat Melt Like Crazy x Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
Excellent biological research that produces understanding and application can ignore natural selection completely.If natural selection is useless in science, as we have argued recently (4 Jan 2019, 10 Jan 2019), then the flip side should also be true: scientists should be able to do useful work by ignoring natural selection entirely. They should be able to discover, analyze, explain, and apply biological discoveries without it. This contradicts Dobzhansky’s frequently quoted mythoid, “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.” Here are some examples in the news.Divining roots: Revealing how plants branch out to access water (Science Daily). When seeking water in the dark underground, plant roots use a method called “hydropatterning” to succeed. The root only triggers root hairs to branch out when they sense water. Scientists at the University of Nottingham show the remarkable process in a video animation that looks for all the world like a smart drill bit finding its way down, down, with tiny root hairs occasionally branching out. They mention “divining roots” in jest. No water-witching or divining rod is implied. Instead, the plant controls the process by a “branching master gene called ARF7.” Without it, they found, the root cannot perform hydropatterning.Professor Sadanandom explained: “Plants are relatively immobile and therefore their growth and development is very much dependent on their environment. Our research has identified the particular protein which can modify, and even inactivate root branching, therefore limiting plant growth and development.“This is hugely exciting as it opens up the possibility for us to adapt this protein interaction and potentially develop plants that could continue to branch roots even in challenging conditions such as water scarcity.”Professor Bennett concluded: “Water is critical for plant growth, development and, ultimately, their survival. Surprisingly, understanding how plants sense water availability has eluded scientists until now. By studying how plant roots modify their branching in response to water availability, we have uncovered a novel molecular mechanism.Readers will look in vain for any mention of evolution or natural selection (NS) in these articles. They will see hydropatterning described as “an adaptive response,” but the researchers do not mean adaptation by NS, because that would require multiple generations selecting chance mutations in a population. They mean, instead, that the root is adapting to water presence as it grows. That had to be a pre-programmed response. In short, this research aided scientific discovery, analysis, understanding and application without any need for evolutionary storytelling.The most important hair on your head is on the inside (Phys.org). This article tells about research on cilia on your brain cells. They look like little hairs sticking out of the cells, but are profoundly important for health and function in the brain. Researchers at the Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology apparently had no need for Darwin to come in and explain how cilia evolved. They are too busy working to understand how cilia work. Cilia, by the way, are one of the examples of irreducible complexity that Michael Behe gave in his leading-edge intelligent design book, Darwin’s Black Box.The immune system’s fountain of youth (Medical Xpress). Scientists at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel are not thinking about natural selection. They are more concerned about people: “If only we could keep our bodies young, healthy and energetic, even as we attain the wisdom of our years.” To help on that goal, they are studying what the body does with senescent cells, cells “not completely dead but suffering loss of function or irreparable damage.” Inability to clear these damaged cells may contribute to aging by causing inflammation. By learning about how the body cleans out senescent cells in mice, and making it more effective, they feel they could prolong human lifespan. Would speculating about natural selection help their efforts in any way?How did your shoulder form? (Medical Xpress). The headline seems made to order for a Darwinian just-so story about how your shoulder evolved by natural selection. Instead, we read from this press release from the University of Delaware,Whether you’re pitching a baseball, playing a violin, or typing at your desk, your shoulder helps you get the job done. This joint is a complex machine, and in order to protect shoulders from injury, scientists want to develop a better understanding of how the most delicate parts of these joints work. Surely they must employ NS in their understanding, right? Isn’t that what makes sense in biology? Apparently not: “assistant professor of biomedical engineering Megan Killian is using novel methods to study muscle activity during the maturation and healing of the rotator cuff, the group of muscles and tissues that helps to keep the shoulder joint in place.” She’s looking at the shoulder from an engineer’s perspective. Not only that, her university is promoting the engineering perspective for making sense of biology among its next generation of researchers:Biomedical engineering students learned about how dissimilar tissues in our bodies attach in a course offered this past fall called Structural Interfaces in Biology. This course, developed at UD by Killian, covers how materials integrate and attach in biological systems, from tendon-to-bone attachments to the way gecko feet attach to smooth surfaces.So how did your shoulder form? Ask an engineer. Do NOT ask a Darwinian, unless you just want to hear a story.Because of its good bioengineering design, a shoulder can be used to wield a heavy sword in complex, rapid moves, or play the most delicate notes on a violin. Differing materials, including bone, muscle and tendons, must be able to reliably attach to make this possible. Should scientists expect us to endure just-so stories about how natural selection engineered such biomechanical masterpieces by chance? (Credits: left: David Rives channel. Right: Alma Deutscher channel.)Bioengineers unveil surprising sensory and self-healing abilities of seashore creatures (Science Daily). Limpets are small shellfish that adhere to rocks in tidal waters. Again, bioengineers lead the way in helping us understand their remarkable repair abilities:New research from bioengineers paints a surprisingly complex picture of limpets — the little seashore creatures that are ubiquitous on rocky patches of beaches in many parts of the world. The bioengineers have discovered that limpets are able to detect minor damage to their shells with surprising accuracy before remodelling them to make them stronger. In many ways, the way they heal is similar to the way broken bones mend in mammals.The researchers at Trinity College Dublin not only ignored natural selection in their research, analysis and understanding of these little animals, they found something positively anti-evolutionary: that limpets use a “surprisingly complex” method of repair that is similar to what mammals do. Even more telling, the full paper in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface—usually a bastion of evolutionary storytelling—fails to mention evolution or natural selection at all.Jonathan Wells has re-cast the Dobzhansky quote to say, “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of the evidence.” Natural selection is not evidence. It is a story, a scenario, a narrative gloss applied on the surface of the phenomenon under study, turning it hideous. If you don’t want to imagine Michelangelo’s David perverted by a coat of garrish neon-glow paint, then keep natural selection out of your biology, too.See also: “Will Humpty Darwin Fall in 2019” (3 Jan 2019).(Visited 368 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
The documentary genre of film is a woven part of cinematic history. We explore the different types and share characteristics and examples of each.Top image via BFIWhat is a documentary? Webster’s dictionary defines documentary as “consisting of documents: written down.” After a better Google search, Wikipedia defines a documentary as “a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspects of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction or maintaining a historical record.”It also opens into the history of documentaries while referencing Bill Nichols‘ classic text Introduction to Documentary, where he outlines the six modes (or “sub-genres” or “types”) of documentaries. While there’s a lot of variation within, these are the six main categories of the genre in which all documentary films can be cast.Poetic DocumentariesFirst seen in the 1920s, Poetic Documentaries are very much what they sound like. They focus on experiences, images and showing the audience the world through a different set of eyes. Abstract and loose with narrative, the poetic sub-genre can be very unconventional and experimental in form and content. The ultimate goal is to create a feeling rather than a truth.Expository DocumentariesExpository Documentaries are probably closest to what most people consider “documentaries.” A sharp contrast to poetic, expository documentaries aim to inform and/or persuade — often through omnipresent “Voice of God” narration over footage devoid of ambiguous or poetic rhetoric. This mode includes the familiar Ken Burns and television (A&E, History Channel, etc…) styles.Observational DocumentariesObservational Documentaries are exactly what they sound like — they aim to simply observe the world around them. Originating in the 1960s with the advances in portable film equipment, the cinéma vérité style is much less pointed than the Expository. The style attempts to give voice to all sides of an issue by giving audiences first hand access to some of the subject’s most important (and often private) moments.Participatory DocumentariesParticipatory Documentaries, while having elements of Observational and Expository, include the filmmaker within the narrative. This could be as minor as the filmmaker’s voice being heard behind the camera, prodding subjects with questions or cues — all the way to the filmmaker directly influencing the major actions of the narrative.Reflexive DocumentariesReflexive Documentaries are similar to Participatory in that they often include the filmmaker within the film — however, unlike Participatory, they make no attempts to explore an outside subject. Rather, they focus solely on themselves and the act of them making the film.Performative DocumentariesPerformative Documentaries are an experimental combination of styles used to stress subject experience and share an emotional response to the world. They often connect personal accounts or experience juxtaposed with larger political or historical issues. This has sometimes been called the “Michael Moore” style, as he often uses his own personal stories as a way to construct social truths (without having to argue the validity of their experiences).From there, within each sub-genre springs an endless list of variations and styles unique to each and every film. It’s up to the documentary filmmakers to craft their narrative (or non-narrative) for their desired audience.What type of documentary do you prefer? Are there any documentary types you think we left out? Let us know below!