We report on the discovery of a new outcrop of fossiliferous Neogene sediments on northern James Ross Island, northern Antarctic Peninsula. Approximately 100 specimens of the pectinid bivalve Austrochlamys anderssoni (Hennig, 1911) were collected from the permafrost active layer. This bivalve species has a late Miocene to late Pliocene range and has previously been reported from both the glaciomarine Hobbs Glacier Formation and the interglacial Cockburn Island Formation in the James Ross Island area. The localized presence of abundant A. anderssoni within the permafrost suggests that the fossils have been frost heaved from an outcrop of either the Cockburn Island or the Hobbs Glacier formations, originally deposited on northern James Ross Island. The overall shell form, general absence of associated Antarctic Peninsula-derived clasts in the host sediment, and the measured Sr-87/(86) Sr isotope ratio of the shells (0.709050) which is indistinguishable from that for pectinid bivalves from the Cockburn Island Formation on Cockburn Island (0.709047) suggest that the shells were derived from a unit similar in age to the Cockburn Island Formation. This suggests that the Cockburn Island Formation was originally more laterally extensive than was previously known.
“The research funding granted by the US Navy will allow us to further enhance and build upon our pioneering technologies that will enhance safety, efficiency and deliver a cultural change for our customers,” Paul Craig, President of Defence Services, said. Equipment & technology Naida Hakirevic View post tag: Royal Navy FOD is estimated to cost the global aviation industry billions of dollars per year in damage and disruption. The vast majority of ingested debris currently goes undetected – only when very large items are ingested do operators have any indication that something has made its way into the engine. Rolls-Royce will continue to work with a long-standing industrial partner, Roke, to deliver the contract. View post tag: Debris January 27, 2021, by Share this article US Navy grants RR $1M research deal for debris detection tech “Inlet debris monitoring technology is a critical element of the FOD mitigation portfolio, supporting the U.S. Navy’s initiative to save hundreds of millions in FOD repair costs,” Jonathan Sides, FOD Chief Engineer at NAVAIR, commented. Back to overview,Home naval-today US Navy grants RR $1M research deal for debris detection tech Last week, Rolls-Royce was awarded $1 million in research funding from the US Government for digital foreign object debris (FOD) detection technology. As informed, the year-long research contract from the US Navy will help to further develop and validate Rolls-Royce’s FanSense debris monitoring system, which is currently supporting the Pegasus engine. According to the company, the innovative technology applied as part of this service offering will allow customers across civil and defence industries to detect much smaller debris entering the engine, enabling them to build a clearer picture of FOD damage and engine wear over time and will help to identify airfields that need to improve their FOD prevention practices. View post tag: Rolls-Royce FanSense works by analyzing the shaft speed signal of an engine and is able to detect any disruptions that arise as a result of a small object, such as stones or screws, striking an engine fan blade.
Prize amounts are entirely dependent on the number of players in the tournament but a Main Event Prize Pool of $50,000 is guaranteed. The Main Event will take place Thursday, January 28 through Sunday, January 31 in Tropicana Evansville’s Casino Poker Room. Tournament viewing is open to the public, but space is limited. “MSPT has a very strong following. Some of its events have prize pools in excess of $400,000. Our preliminary events were well received by our poker players and we feel this is a great indication the main event will be strong.” says Giffen Tan, Executive Director of Gaming Operations at Tropicana Evansville. The Mid-States Poker Tour (MSPT) is a series of deep stack Texas Hold’em tournaments held at separate locations throughout the Midwest. Tropicana Evansville is hosting the MSPT Regional Tournament in their southern Indiana casino through January 31. The MSPT is designed to cater directly to Poker players, players who desire affordable buy-ins that also lead to large prize pools. The MSPT adds a new level of prestige to Poker in the Midwest — one of the most underrated Poker hotbeds in the country. FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmail
Promoting rule of law; and Recognising the need for clear legal frameworks that set out responsibilities of people living with forests, of businesses and governments. In particular we need to ensure indigenous people and forest communities have secure rights and access to the forests they need for both their livelihoods and, indeed, their identity. Embedding these rights in law is a pre-condition to effective enforcement of their rights. Encouraging democratic decision-making that brings citizens, communities, interest groups, the private sector and government together to formulate and enforce laws, based on transparency and public access to information. l look forward to learning from your efforts to improve governance. In this room you have a tremendous richness of experience and Forums like this one today are important for us, to take stock, learn and adapt as we work to scale up efforts to stop illegal logging and its associated irresponsible trade.We know illegal deforestation is not limited to the forest sector. Globally, high demand for agriculture commodities such as palm oil, soya, rubber and cocoa are also driving illegal forest clearance and undermining the rule of law. As you no doubt will be discussing in greater depth at this meeting, this forest clearance is now the greater source of illegal timber on the market. So it cannot be ignored.Earlier this year, the UK Government set out our ambition in a 25 year Environment Plan to support and protect the world’s forests, supporting sustainable agriculture and enhancing sustainability, and supporting zero-deforestation supply chains.My department, alongside DFID and BEIS, is supporting work to promote sustainable supply chains of other commodities, such as palm oil and soya that may put forests at risk. We are actively engaged with international efforts to promote sustainable supply chains, with other countries in the Amsterdam Group that aims at promoting zero-deforestation commodity supply chains, with the Tropical Forest Alliance and other business-led initiatives promoting responsible investment. And a few weeks ago, I held a roundtable discussion with my Ministerial colleagues from DFID and BEIS and leaders in the financial and commodities sector on establishing a Global Resource Initiative, to improve the sustainability of key commodities and reduce deforestation.We will continue to nurture sustainable trade and harness its potential to drive sustainable development, supporting our developing country partners, and working in partnership with UK businesses, to drive growth and tackle climate change.But, let me be clear, without sound governance arrangements in place in both tropical producer countries and consumer countries, private and public finance will struggle to slow down deforestation. The returns to cutting down and capturing the capital locked in standing forests, whether by corporate business, small holders or organised criminals, is just so high that we will not succeed without legal and social measures that reward the good guys and exclude the bad.Investment and finance are important in our fight to preserve forests and habitats but without bringing together coalitions of interested parties to establish new rules and norms, we will forever be fighting against the tide. That is why meetings such as the one today are important: you help sustain the momentum that drives the challenging governance reforms forward.The UK cannot tackle illegal deforestation and illegal logging alone. This is a global agenda.The UK was instrumental in establishing the EU Timber Regulation and we are now making arrangements to put this into UK law, for after we leave the EU.Other consumer countries have also established legislation to exclude illegal and high risk products from their markets: the US, Australia, Japan, Switzerland and, recently Korea – I see in the agenda that you have a session reviewing this welcome developmentHowever, the global lockdown on illegal trade is not yet complete. There is one big hole in the fence. About 60% of the trade in tropical hardwoods now goes through China, with over 60% being consumed inside China. I recognise the difficulties for China in finalising mandatory regulations and enforcement arrangements, given the scale of demand from consumers domestically, in China and from other consumer markets, such as the UK.Unfortunately, no-one from the Chinese government is here today, but we know, through our forest partnership with China, that they are well aware of their global responsibility and are keenly aware of the potential damage resulting from deforestation, as they witnessed first-hand with devastating floods in the 1990s. They appreciate, based on their own experiences, the technical challenges and the huge costs associated with reforestation. But unregulated production and unregulated trade, as you will be exploring at this meeting, has already brought irreversible damage on many tropical forests.We will continue to encourage China to put in place and enforce their own mandatory regulations. We look forward to an announcement from China, closing this gap in the global market – perhaps at a future Chatham House event.As the UK exits the EU we are determined to grow our ambition as framed by the policies of the FLEGT action plan – to encourage other markets to better regulate their imports and to work with producers to recognise their national systems of legality assurance. We are very keen to promote the principles of our work under EU FLEGT policies to a global level – building actions that link consumer markets with producer country efforts to regulate and ensure full compliance with their environmental and social lawsIn 2020, the UK, along with 196 other countries, will agree and adopt a post-2020 strategic framework for biodiversity under the Convention on Biological Diversity. This is a key moment to bend the curve away from biodiversity loss and shape a positive future for nature and people. All sectors have a role to play, including the forestry sector, and it is critical that the industry are part of that discussion from the start.Finally, for this audience, and in these days where the UK’s exit from the EU remains in the headlines, let me return to the UK commitment to climate change, deforestation and illegal logging. We continue to promote responsible, legal and sustainable trade in agricultural commodities, such as palm oil, soya, beef, cocoa, and rubber – now more damaging to tropical forests than illegal logging We remain committed to supporting the governance reforms of developing countries that underpin their legality assurance systems that will eventually result in licences for exports We need transparency to help us monitor what is working and what is not, and to hold us, and our partners to account. This transparency helps us to communicate and promote the results of these efforts in our own and international markets which in turn we hope will improve the incentives for good governance and responsible business. The EU Timber Regulation will be brought into UK law and the UK will put in place mechanisms to recognise the licensing systems of producer countries currently engaged in Voluntary Partnership Agreements with the EU These UK commitments extend beyond this government and, in broad terms, across all parties in Parliament. We remain committed to the environment, to mitigating climate change, to reducing deforestation and to preventing illegal logging Our commitment is not just to stand-alone programmes to mitigate climate change and arrest deforestation. This commitment aligns with other initiatives, including: They resonate with concerns about the environment, fair trade and international development that go beyond “insiders and committed activists” and excite wider interest in our society. Thank you Chatham House for inviting me to speak today. I am delighted to be here, to welcome you to the United Kingdom from so many corners of the world, and to say a few words about our renewed ambition to work in partnership to tackle what remains a huge global challenge of fighting forest crimes and promoting sustainable forest-friendly commodity production – whether for timber, cocoa, soy, or palm oil.The broad range of representatives, delegates and contributors here, and the scope of your agenda, certainly illustrate the global reach of the Forum, from new science on isotopes, to regulations in Korea and new partnerships in Honduras and Guyana.Over the last two years, we have been focused on addressing the impact of deforestation and illegal logging. During my recent visits to Mozambique, Uganda and Kenya, and last month’s Illegal Wildlife Trade conference here in London, ministers and officials reaffirmed the destructive effects of deforestation and illegal logging – on people’s lives and livelihoods, in terms the loss of revenues, the links to organised crime, and the destructive impact on wildlife habitats. But I have also been impressed by the determination with which these countries are fighting these threats, for example by protecting mangroves in Mozambique. Addressing the challenges of environmental and forest crime, and promoting good governance of our natural resources really does matter – for me, for the UK Government, for all of you here today, for planet Earth.You know the scale of forest crime is a major global challenge. According to recent World Bank research, in some countries almost 90 per cent of timber production is illegal. World-wide, exports of illegally logged timber are worth at least $20 billion a year, and that is probably an under-estimate. These illegal practices undermine the rule of law and fuel corruption, lose billions in potential tax revenues, deter investment and prevent the growth of sustainable businesses. We also know that the livelihoods of over 1 billion poor people and rural communities depend on forests. For forests to contribute to sustainable economic growth and biodiversity conservation we need to see massive improvements in how they are protected and managed.Efforts to curb illegal logging are also critical to the global fight against climate change and biodiversity loss. Deforestation and land use change cause around one quarter of greenhouse gas emissions impacting on the functioning of ecosystems and contributing to the loss of species. So we cannot ignore this.The UK is one of the largest global importers of timber, and we recognise our shared responsibility to tackle this problem. For the last twenty years we have been at the forefront of international action against illegal logging. We successfully argued for the inclusion of the topic in the 1998 G8 Action Programme on Forests, we worked together with the G8 and developing countries to organise a series of ministerial conferences, and we played a major role in formulating and implementing the EU’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade Action Plan – FLEGT, to use its rather clunky acronym.We have worked together with businesses in the international timber trade, such as those dealing in construction, furniture and paper, to exclude illegal, high-risk timber from the British market. We have encouraged the development of company responsible purchasing policies and through using public procurement policy – the government’s own buying power – to source legal and sustainable wood products. Since 2013 our implementation of the EU Timber Regulation has ensured that all companies placing timber on the UK market have been required to scrutinise their supply chains to minimise the risk of their handling illegal products.And we have supported forest-rich developing countries to put in place their own systems for tackling illegal logging.Two years ago Indonesia became the first country to ensure that all its timber exports can affirm, through a license, that they are verified as legally produced. The EU now requires all timber imports from Indonesia to be accompanied by a license – from construction timbers through to furniture and paper.Since 2016, the relevant UK authority – the Office of Product Safety and Standards – has verified more than 8,000 licences accompanying Indonesian exports, reassuring British companies that the timber products they put on sale are legal throughout the entire supply chain.The UK has benefited from these changes. The UK is the largest importer of timber in Europe, so these transformational reforms in Indonesia open up an important source of high-quality, legal wood for UK companies.Creating the governance systems to regulate, track and assure legality has been a massive achievement, particularly for such a large and diverse country, and I want to pay tribute to the dedication and determination shown by our partners in Indonesia, government, business and civil society alike. It gives a strong, positive message for other countries working to bring an end to illegal logging.Even where the licensing system has not yet been put in place, the agreements have led to measurable improvements in forest governance: reforms to the framework of laws, policies and institutions, the inclusion of business and civil society in decision-making, improvements in transparency, and much else besides. These help lay the foundations for deep-seated, lasting progress in the fight against illegal logging.Measures to reform governance are at the heart of our efforts to combat illegal logging and the trade in illegal timber.Critical ingredients for these governance reforms have included: Tackling organised crime, the green washing of illegal proceeds; We need the active involvement of the private sector to ensure that the reforms support their efforts to see responsible practices right down through their supply chains. As well as clear rights and responsibilities, we need mechanisms that bring people together to design, oversee and enforce these legal arrangements. These mechanisms require access to information and increased capacity of community and private sector representatives to engage in policy processes. It is the shared understanding of policy that gives legitimacy to sector governance. DFID’s Forest Governance Markets and Climate programme, which sponsors this event, is at the forefront of this agenda. I wish you well and I look forward to hearing of the outcomes of this the 28th illegal logging forum at Chatham House.
Throughout these difficult and complex negotiations with the European Union I have had one goal in mind: to honour the vote of the British people and deliver a good Brexit deal.Last week we achieved a decisive breakthrough when we agreed with the European Commission the terms for our smooth and orderly exit from the EU.Alongside that withdrawal agreement we published an outline political declaration setting out the framework for our future relationship.Last night in Brussels, I had a good, detailed discussion with President Juncker in which I set out what was needed in that political declaration to deliver for the United Kingdom.We tasked our negotiating teams to continue working overnight and as a result, the text of that declaration has been agreed between the European Union and the United Kingdom.I have just updated the Cabinet on progress and I will be making a statement to the House of Commons later this afternoon.This is the right deal for the UK.It delivers on the vote of the referendum. It brings back control of our borders, our money and our laws.And it does so while protecting jobs, protecting our security and protecting the integrity of the United Kingdom.The agreement we’ve reached is between the UK and the European Commission – it is now up to the 27 leaders of the other EU member states to examine this agreement in the days leading up to the special EU Council meeting on Sunday.I will be speaking to my counterparts over that time, including meeting Chancellor Kurz of Austria here in Downing Street later today.Last night I spoke to the Spanish Prime Minister, Pedro Sánchez, and I am confident that on Sunday we will be able to agree a deal that delivers for the whole UK family, including Gibraltar.On Saturday I will return to Brussels for further meetings with President Juncker where we will discuss how to bring this process to a conclusion in the interest of all our people.The British people want this to be settled. They want a good deal that sets us on course for a brighter future. That deal is within our grasp and I am determined to deliver it.
What if the algorithm is racist?As computers shift from being helpmates that tackle the drudgery of dense calculations and data handling to smart machines informing decisions, their potential for bias is increasingly an area of concern.The algorithms aiding such decisions are complex, their inputs myriad, and their inner workings often proprietary information of the companies that create them. These factors can leave the human waiting on bail or a bank loan in the dark.Experts gathered at Harvard Law School to examine the potential for bias as our decision-making intelligence becomes ever more artificial. The panel, “Programming the Future of AI: Ethics, Governance, and Justice,” was held at Wasserstein Hall as part of HUBweek, a celebration of art, science, and technology sponsored by Harvard, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and The Boston Globe.Christopher Griffin, research director of the Law School’s Access to Justice Lab, described pretrial detention systems that calculate a person’s risk of flight or committing another crime — particularly a violent crime — in making bail recommendations. A well-functioning system, Griffin said, can potentially reduce racial and ethnic disparities in how bail is awarded, as well as disparities from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.Audience members listen with rapt attention. Rose Lincoln/Harvard Staff Photographer.Jonathan Zittrain, the George Bemis Professor of International Law and faculty chair of the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society, which sponsored the event, said the danger of these systems is that the output of even a well-designed algorithm becomes biased when biased data is used as an input.As an example, Zittrain said any arrest is at least partly a function of decisions by the arresting officer. If that officer is biased and makes an arrest that another officer might not make, then the arrest record can introduce bias into a system.Also, some systems use input from interviews conducted with the accused. Though questions are standardized to increase objectivity, they can be influenced by the quality of the interview. An unclear answer scored in one way or another can make the difference between a person being detained or going free on bail, Zittrain noted.Berkman Klein co-director Margo Seltzer, Herchel Smith Professor of Computer Science at the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, said her main concern is transparency. Any decision — a loan rejection, for example — should be explainable in plain language, she said.But the process behind such decisions can be extremely complex and defy easy explanation, according to Cynthia Dwork, Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science. No less an issue is that private companies value their privacy.One response, Zittrain said, would be to pass on private contractors who want to keep the inner workings of their products secret. Though hiring a developer to write voting machine software, for example, might be too expensive for a single town or county, regional pacts are a possible solution, particularly in a situation in which accuracy and openness are the highest priorities.“I don’t know how you would want this farmed out instead of building it in house,” Zittrain said. “I have yet to hear an argument why we would possibly want this to be at arm’s length, particularly if contractors will be able to claim that it’s proprietary.”
Rosie LoVoi | The Observer Morrissey Manor stands next to Howard and Lyons halls on South Quad.Morrissey houses around 180 “Manorites” from each year. The dorm hosts signature events such as the Medallion Hunt, essentially a giant scavenger hunt to find a medallion hidden somewhere on Notre Dame’s campus. “The RAs and ARs that create the clues are usually very creative, and lots of people enjoy deciphering the clues and the hunt,” Quigley said. Morrissey also hosted the very first outdoor game watch on South Quad for the Michigan State football game this year. Sophomore and hall president Ryan Doyle said that the game watch was a huge success and that Morrissey plans to continue this tradition in the future. Another treasured tradition among the men of Morrissey is their basement food sales, Doyle said. The restaurant is called “Yaz’s” after Carl Yastrzemski, Hall of Fame baseball player for the Boston Red Sox and one of Morrissey’s more notable former residents. The profits from Yaz’s go to supporting Morrissey’s charity, the Hill School in Uganda. “The food sales in the basement of Morrissey are super effective and raise a lot of money,” Doyle said. “All the profits go to charity.” Morrissey is one of only three dorms on campus to not carry the title “hall,” along with Zahm House and Sorin College. In an email, rector Zack Imfeld shared a story he heard about how the Manor possibly came to be.“An older Holy Cross priest stopped by one day and said he lived in Morrissey during the 1950s and when they decided to call themselves the Manor,” Imfeld said. “He said that the men were getting into a little bit of trouble, so they thought by naming their building a Manor, the men would hold themselves to a higher standard. From my experience, it worked — we have some of the best guys on campus!”Morrissey is known for having the smallest rooms on campus, but Doyle said this is actually a positive quality because it increases fellowship among the residents. To make up for the small room sizes, there are large common rooms in each section that the residents can furnish as they choose.“There’s a great community because very few people are spending the majority of their time in their room because it’s so small,” Doyle said. “People are forced out, and you get to meet pretty much everyone. I don’t know if there’s many people in Morrissey that I don’t know.”Morrissey is the next dorm to be renovated, so its residents will be residing in Pangborn Hall next year. When asked how he felt the Morrissey community would respond to this change, Quigley expressed faith in the camaraderie of the Morrissey men to make it through the year.“While we do love our building and we think it is beautiful and will miss it, we don’t really think that the building identifies us,” Quigley said. “The people in the dorm are what are important, and we will all still be together whether it is in the Manor or Pangborn. Our traditions will continue, and we will adapt in any way that we have to in order to grow our community and events.” Tags: dorm features, Morrissey Manor, yaz’s Established in 1925, Morrissey Manor has been home to Notre Dame men for nearly a century. Part of the “Golden Coast” along with Lyons and Howard Halls on South Quad, the Manor’s elaborate architecture is among the most distinctive at Notre Dame. Junior and incoming RA Brian Quigley explained some of the symbolism behind Morrissey’s iconic exterior in an email. “[Morrissey] was intentionally built slightly asymmetric if you look at it closely, representing the fact that only God is truly perfect,” Quigley said. “It was named after Andrew Morrissey, the school’s seventh president. There is an X-shaped cross on the building that represents the crucifixion of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Fr. Morrissey.”
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Analysts see continued weakness for U.S. LNG despite resumption of Chinese imports FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享S&P Global Market Intelligence ($):The resumption of U.S. LNG deliveries to China offers little hope of eliminating the risk of U.S. LNG exports getting shut in as the coronavirus pandemic chokes off demand in key markets and prices hover at historic lows.But analysts said the renewal of LNG trade flows that had been frozen for 13 months during the U.S.-China trade war could still help soften the blow of a weak global gas market as China’s economy recovers from a period of lockdown amid the pandemic.“You can’t imagine that China’s gradual return to normal is enough to counter the two negative drivers on the price side, which are the constrained activity everywhere else and the increase in LNG supply coming from the U.S. and other places,” energy analyst Katie Bays, co-founder of research and consulting firm Sandhill Strategy, said in an interview. “China returning to normal just dampens the impact of those.”The bounce-back of the world’s fastest-growing LNG buyer should benefit all Chinese suppliers, but the politics of the trade war could benefit U.S. exporters, Bays said.Still, China’s demand is unlikely to be enough to significantly alter the bleak outlook for global gas markets. Market observers have warned that already high European storage levels could fill up around the start of the third quarter, potentially triggering a wave of cargo cancellations in the U.S. if other markets cannot absorb the LNG.“China isn’t enough by itself to fundamentally change the fortunes of the global market, even though it’s a big buyer,” Bays said. “If we are going to continue to drift into a more compressed demand scenario, and storage continues to fill up, and that dynamic continues to get worse, then you will see curtailments in the U.S.”[Corey Paul]More ($): China’s renewed imports of US LNG may soften but not avert export shut-in risks
The lieutenant general remembers being on the field the moment the war ended. The announcement was made three consecutive times over the loudspeakers. “At first, there was a sort of silence, but then you heard a lot of shouting,” he recalled. “There was a lot of crying; many tears were shed that day. The end was fantastic, but then shortly afterward, you knew for sure that war is an act of cowardice. I went out to the road to see the prisoners passing by, and it was endless. There were young boys, there were old men, there were all kinds there, and I said, ‘Gosh, we were killing these guys a moment ago … and now we’re giving them cigarettes.’ ” Currently, Brazil has approximately 1,400 fighter pilots, no longer shaped in the same mold as the Fighter Group, but by the doctrine that was established after the war. The Brazilian pilots’ inexperience was offset by their dedication and desire to win and honor their country’s name abroad. “I never consulted a map; I had the whole map of Italy in my head. I and all the others. There were colleagues who were called homing pigeons, because they knew more than the map did,” Lt. Gen. Rui said with teary eyes as he remembered those days. “My first mission was on November 6, 1944. I was already married, my wife was pregnant, and some days I would write her three letters. However, our main concern was to fulfill the mission. I went on 94 missions, and my plane was hit nine times, with multiple shots each time. On one occasion, there were 57 holes in my airplane. I’d taken shots in the wing, which caused significant damage to its aerodynamics. That was on April 29, 1945. I almost died,” he recalled. Nevertheless, Rui cannot pinpoint a specific mission as his main one. To him, they were all important, especially those in which the pilots were at greater risk. “People were risking their own lives, and a lieutenant knew that each bomb he dropped and each shot he fired was a step closer to ending the war. This made us very aware,” he said. This was the name he wore on his uniform as an aviation second lieutenant when he commanded 94 missions aboard a P-47 Thunderbolt, most of the time under intense fire from German anti-aircraft artillery. From October 1944 to May 1945, Brazil’s 1st Fighter Group, which was formed specifically for combat in Italy during World War II, executed 445 missions. Brazil was the only South American country to send troops to Europe to support the Allies. “The main concern we had was, basically, to fulfill the mission. It was a pain, however, to say the least! You had to remain amid crossfire for almost three hours; there was no place to go where you wouldn’t get shot,” said Lt. Gen. Rui, one of the few remaining survivors of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force (FEB). The FEB was composed of volunteers, mostly cadets who had recently graduated from the Brazilian Army Officer Training School, because the Brazilian Air Force did not yet exist. “Brazil entered World War II after some of its ships were bombed along the Brazilian coast. In December 1943, the Fighter Group was created. We entered the war with 22 pilots, and obviously, we had no experience in this. “Fighter pilots nowadays are surprisingly well prepared professionally, capable of piloting any fighter plane. I sense in them an enormous desire to defend Brazil, and the FEB had enormous influence on this. Our victorious return from Italy, I think, was the last straw that brought down President Getúlio Vargas’ dictatorship and sowed democracy in Brazil,” he concluded. The important point to emphasize is that the Americans sold us [Brazil] the planes, and we chose the P-47,” the lieutenant general said. In total, 47 Brazilian pilots participated in at least one mission during the war. By war’s end, five Brazilians pilots had been taken prisoners and another five were killed in combat. By Dialogo October 01, 2012 At the age of 93, Lieutenant General Rui Barbosa Moreira Lima is one of only three living Brazilian fighter pilots from World War II. A career military officer, he has been highly decorated and served as commander of Santa Cruz Air Base in Rio de Janeiro from August 1962 to April 1964, when he was dismissed by the military government that took control of the country. He has been trying to get a full amnesty since then, but has had no luck. He also authored several works about aviation and the members of his fighter group, the best-known of which is titled, Hit ’Em Hard!, a combat memoir from his days in the Italian theater of operations. In May 2012, Lt. Gen. Rui Moreira Lima sat down with Diálogo to share some of his stories. In military circles, it is often said that fighter pilots are “different.” This statement appears to fit Lieutenant General Rui Moreira Lima like a glove, starting with his nom de guerre. Even though he was the son of an appellate judge from a well-known family in Brazil, he chose to be known simply as Rui. Those heroes that were willing to die so that we could live, will not be forgotten. Coincidentally, just yesterday night, in our circle of friends, we remembered the FEB (Brazilian Expeditionary Force) and the moving visit I paid to the “Museo del Expedicionario” in Curitiba, Brasil. Thank you from my heart to Lt. Gral. Rui. There will always be people who remember the Heroes of America, as American I lower the Paraguayan flag and as a soldier I express my gratitude to Lieutenant Riu who gave everything for his love of freedom. I would like to visit Museo de Los Expedicionarios in Curitiba in the near future.